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Fig. 1-CO, p. 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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Fig. 1-CO, p. 1

Fig. 1-CO, p. 1

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Fig. 1-CO, p. 1

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  1. Fig. 1-CO, p. 1

  2. Fig. 1-1, p. 3

  3. Total Water Salt water 97.5% Fresh water 2.5% Fresh Water Surface and atmospheric water 0.4% Permafrost 0.8% Glaciers 68.7% Surface and Atmospheric Water Groundwater 30.1% Freshwater lakes 67.4% Biota 0.8% Rivers1.6% Wetlands 8.5% Atmosphere 9.5% Soil moisture 12.2% Fig. 1-1, p. 3

  4. Fig. 1-2a, p. 3

  5. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ocean’s deepest spot Earth’s highest mountain Pacific Ocean Basin, Earth’s largest feature Fig. 1-2a, p. 3

  6. Mid-Atlantic Ridge Ocean’s deepest spot Earth’s highest mountain Pacific Ocean Basin, Earth’s largest feature Stepped Art Fig. 1-2a, p. 3

  7. Fig. 1-3, p. 4

  8. Fig. 1-4a, p. 5

  9. Fig. 1-4b, p. 5

  10. Fig. 1-5, p. 6

  11. Curiosity A question arises about an event or situation: Why and how does this happen? Why are things this way? Observations, measurements Law Theories can evolve into larger constructs: laws. Laws explain events in nature that occur with unvarying uni- formity under identical conditions. Laws summarize experimental observations. Our senses are brought to bear: What is happening? Under what circumstances? When? How does it operate? Does there appear to be a dependable cause-and- effect relationship at work? Theory Hypothesis A tentative explanation is proposed. Controlled experiments are planned to prove or disprove potential cause-and-effect relationships. A good hypothesis can predict future occurrences under similar circumstances. Patterns emerge. If one or more of the relationships hold, the hypothesis becomes a theory, an explanation for the observations that is accepted by most researchers. Experiments Tests are undertaken in nature or in the laboratory. These tests permit manipulating and controlling the conditions under which observations are made. Fig. 1-5, p. 6

  12. Curiosity A question arises about an event or situation: Why and how does this happen? Why are things this way? Observations, measurements Law Theories can evolve into larger constructs: laws. Laws explain events in nature that occur with unvarying uni- formity under identical conditions. Laws summarize experimental observations. Our senses are brought to bear: What is happening? Under what circumstances? When? How does it operate? Does there appear to be a dependable cause-and- effect relationship at work? Theory Hypothesis A tentative explanation is proposed. Controlled experiments are planned to prove or disprove potential cause-and-effect relationships. A good hypothesis can predict future occurrences under similar circumstances. Patterns emerge. If one or more of the relationships hold, the hypothesis becomes a theory, an explanation for the observations that is accepted by most researchers. Experiments Tests are undertaken in nature or in the laboratory. These tests permit manipulating and controlling the conditions under which observations are made. Stepped Art Fig. 1-5, p. 6

  13. Fig. 1-6, p. 7

  14. Fig. 1-7, p. 8

  15. Parallel rays from sun Shadow of pole ~7° 1/50 circle Vertical pole at Alexandria 785 km (491 mi) Center of Earth 1/50 circle ~7° Vertical well at Syene Fig. 1-7, p. 8

  16. Fig. 1-8a, p. 9

  17. Fig. 1-8b, p. 9

  18. Box 1-1a, p. 10

  19. Parallel Thule NORTHERN OCEAN EUROPE Borysthenes Danube Byzantium Rhodes Alexandria Ganges ASIA Tropic line Libya India Arabia Nile Meroe Meridian of the Pillars of Hercules Meridian of the Ganges Meridian of the Alexandria Meridian of the Indus ATLANTIC OCEAN Box 1-1a, p. 10

  20. Box 1-1b, p. 10

  21. North Pole 60°N 30°N Latitude 0° Equator 30°S South Pole Box 1-1b, p. 10

  22. Box 1-1c, p. 10

  23. North Pole Prime meridian Longitude 60°W 0° South Pole Box 1-1c, p. 10

  24. Box 1-1d, p. 10

  25. North Pole 60°N 30°N 0 \c2; 30°E 60°W 0° 30°W 30°S South Pole Box 1-1d, p. 10

  26. Fig. 1-9, p. 11

  27. P A C I F I CO C E A N Tropic of Cancer Mariana Is. Marshall Is. Hawaiian Is. PHILIPPINES M I C R O N E S I A Caroline Is. Equator Gilbert Is. P O L Y N E S I A M E L A N E S I A Ellice Is. INDONESIA Marquesas Is. Solomon Is. NEW GUINEA Samoa Is. Cook Is. Fiji Is. New Hebrides Society Is. Tonga Is. Easter Is. New Caledonia A U S T R A L I A Tropic of Capricorn NEW ZEALAND Fig. 1-9, p. 11

  28. Fig. 1-10, p. 12

  29. Fig. 1-11, p. 13

  30. Fig. 1-12, p. 14

  31. Fig. 1-13, p. 14

  32. Fig. 1-14a, p. 15

  33. 400 300 200 100 0 Feet Meters 360 270 180 90 0 Fig. 1-14b, p. 15

  34. Fig. 1-14c, p. 15

  35. Fig. 1-14d, p. 15

  36. Fig. 1-15, p. 16

  37. Fig. 1-16, p. 17

  38. Fig. 1-17a, p. 18

  39. Fig. 1-17b, p. 18

  40. Magellan killed 27 April 1521 Rio de Janeiro 15 December 1519 Voyage began 20 September 1519 Voyage ended 6 September 1522 Straits of Magellan 15 October 1520 Fig. 1-17b, p. 18

  41. Fig. 1-18, p. 19

  42. Fig. 1-19, p. 20

  43. Fig. 1-20a, p. 21

  44. Fig. 1-20b, p. 21

  45. Fig. 1-21, p. 22

  46. Fig. 1-22, p. 23

  47. Fig. 1-23, p. 23

  48. Fig. 1-24, p. 24

  49. Fig. 1-25, p. 25