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Chapter 14 The Quantum Universe. 14.1 The Uncertainty Principle 14.2 The Effect of Observation 14.4 Quantum Reality 14.5 Toward a Post-Newtonian Worldview 14.6 Observing Atomic Spectra 14.7 The Quantum Atom. 14.1 The Uncertainty Principle. Quantum uncertainty

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chapter 14 the quantum universe
Chapter 14The Quantum Universe
  • 14.1 The Uncertainty Principle
  • 14.2 The Effect of Observation
  • 14.4 Quantum Reality
  • 14.5 Toward a Post-Newtonian Worldview
  • 14.6 Observing Atomic Spectra
  • 14.7 The Quantum Atom
14 1 the uncertainty principle
14.1 The Uncertainty Principle
  • Quantum uncertainty
    • All outcomes of things in the microscopic world are unpredictable and have no certain patter.
  • The Uncertainty Principle
    • The position and velocity of every material particle are uncertain. Although either uncertainty can take on any value, the two are related by that face.
  • There is a range of possibilities for everything based on velocity and mass.
14 2 the effect of observation
14.2 The Effect of Observation
  • Every time you try to observer the Uncertainty principle the outcome changes because you observe it.
  • All measurements have a strong instantaneous effects on matter waves.
14 4 quantum reality
14.4 Quantum Reality
  • Uncertainty is a key feature of quantum theory.
  • The view that a particle properties are created by the experimental context is called contextual reality.
14 5 toward a post newtonian worldview
14.5 Toward a Post-Newtonian Worldview
  • Newtonian worldview
    • Atomism
    • Objectivity
    • Predictability
    • Analysis
  • Quantum worldview asserts that the universe is made of nonmaterial fields.
14 6 observing atomic spectra
14.6 Observing Atomic Spectra
  • The most accurate scientific measurement known are made with spectroscopes, devices that measure the frequencies or wavelengths present in radiation.
  • The set of frequencies measured in such experiments is called the spectrum of the source that emitted the radiation.
  • A continuous spectrum is a substances that contains an unbroken range of visible frequencies and is spread out in a continuous band of color.
  • A line spectrum is a spectrum that only shows a slit-shaped line of color in different frequencies.
  • You can excite gas by heating it.
  • Another way to excite gas is to use a process called electric discharge.
14 7 the quantum atom
14.7 The Quantum Atom
  • The Quantum model of the atom describes the behavior of the electron’s matter field.
  • Stationary wave patterns are called standing waves.
  • The energy level is where we make an educated guess on how much energy there is.
  • There are energy states such as ground state which is a point of rest and excited states where the atom is excited.
  • When an atom jumps from one quantum state to another this is called a quantum jump.
  • The emission of radiation from and atom is when it makes a quantum jump down.
15 chapter the nucleus and radioactivity
15 ChapterThe Nucleus and Radioactivity
  • 15.1 Nuclear Forces : The Third Glue
  • 15.2 Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Structure
  • 15.3 Radioactive Decay
  • 15.4 Half-Life: When Does a Nucleus Decay
15 1 nuclear forces the third glue
15.1 Nuclear Forces : The Third Glue
  • The three glues are 1. gravitational 2. electrical and 3. is just strong force
  • The last force is just weak force.
  • All of those put together is what makes up the four fundamental forces.
15 2 nuclear energy and nuclear structure
15.2 Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Structure
  • Any altering of the structure of an atom is called nuclear reaction.
  • The amount of orbital electrons and the chemical properties of an atom is what makes it an element.
  • An isotope is numbered by its atomic number, its number of protons, and also by its mass number, its total number of protons and neutrons have the total number of particles in the nucleus.
15 3 radioactive decay
15.3 Radioactive Decay
  • Every isotope whose atomic number is greater than 83 is radioactive, and there are man radioactive isotopes of lighter elements also.
  • Radioactive materials emit three distinct types of rays known as alpha, beta, and gamma rays.
  • Most nuclei are stable, meaning they will remain unchanged forever unless outside influences disturb them.
  • Some are unstable or radioactive which means they will change their structure even if they experience no outside disturbances.
  • The spontaneous change in structure is called radioactive decay.
  • There are many diferent kinds of decay known as alpha and beta decay. And another thing known as gamma-ray photon which is the three different kinds of decay.
15 4 half life when does a nucleus decay
15.4 Half-Life: When Does a Nucleus Decay
  • A Half-life is a the time it takes for 50% of a large collection of nuclei will decay.
  • This is very important in detraining many dates on things.
  • An atom that decays with a smooth curve has a decay curve.