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The Universe

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  1. The Universe 8.8A

  2. The Universe The universe is all space and everything in it

  3. Components of the Universe • There are lots of parts of the universe: • Stars • Nebulae • Black Holes • Galaxies And so much more!

  4. Stars • Stars are large balls of gas that create their own energy by fusing hydrogen atoms to create helium • The energy created by fusing hydrogen atoms emits light and heat

  5. Stars • Stars are all different sizesand are made up of different elements

  6. Stars • Binary Star: Stars that revolve around each other, they look like they are blinking

  7. Classifying Stars • Stars are classified by three main characteristics: • Size • Brightness (luminosity) • Temperature

  8. Classifying Stars Size • Our sun is a medium size star (letter G below) • There are stars in the universe large enough to fill our solar system

  9. Classifying Stars Temperature • Temperature is determined by color • Blue: Hottest (20,000-50,000*C) • White (10,000*C) • Yellow (6,000*C) • Red-Orange (4,000-5,000*C) • Red: Least Hot (3,000*C) Blue  Red

  10. Classifying Stars Brightness • Brightness depends on the size and temperature of a star • Brightness of a star is described in two ways • Apparent Magnitude: Brightness seen from earth • Absolute magnitude: Real brightness of a star from a standard distance

  11. Hertz-Russell Diagram • Nickname: H-R Diagram • How does it help classify Stars? • Graphs the two most important characteristics of stars: Absolute magnitude (brightness) and Temperature

  12. Hertz-Russell Diagram • Main Sequence: 90 % of all stars, it is the diagonal band in the diagram

  13. Galaxy • Galaxies are made up of millions of stars, gases, and dust

  14. Galaxy • Galaxies are held together by gravity

  15. Galaxy • There are 4 different types of galaxies that are classified by their shape. • Elliptical • Spiral • Lenticular • Irregular

  16. Draw these next to the pictures in your box (not in the giant white space that is for notes)

  17. Elliptical Galaxy • Looks like a flattened ball • Characteristics: • Contain billions of stars • Little gas and dust between the stars • New stars rarely form, mainly old stars in these galaxies

  18. Spiral Galaxy • Shaped like they have arms spiraled outwards (pin wheel) • This is the type of galaxy we live in

  19. Lenticular Galaxy • Galaxy with a central bulge or bar in the middle • It might also have small arms

  20. Irregular Galaxy • No specific shape to the galaxy • Disorganized shape

  21. Black Holes • Large objects that form dense gravity wells • Their gravitational pull is so strong, light cannot escape it (hence why they are dark!)

  22. Black Holes • How can we see black holes: • We can’t • We observe them by looking at the light and energy being sucked in

  23. Black Holes • Black holes have no volume, but infinite density! • Videos: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pAnRKD4raY – Pre AP • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfiU4ioZvPI