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Nationalism in Latin America. Economic System (early 20 th Century). Based largely on export of food stuffs & raw materials Individual economies were one dimensional: 1 or 2 products exported (e.g. Argentina: beef & wheat). U.S. involvement in LA.

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economic system early 20 th century
Economic System (early 20th Century)
  • Based largely on export of food stuffs & raw materials
  • Individual economies were one dimensional: 1 or 2 products exported (e.g. Argentina: beef & wheat)
u s involvement in la
U.S. involvement in LA
  • US resented by local peoples/countries- why?
  • 1) US seen as an imperialist power  
    • w/ direct control, US did not allow countries to act independently
investment in la
Investment in LA
  • British invested in stocks of LA companies, but not production (no direct control)
  • US invested in production facilities (acquired direct control & operation LA companies)
  • Result: large # of LA’s exports came under control of USA (e.g. oil in Mexico, Peru, & Bolivia)
rise of la nationalism
Rise of LA Nationalism

Nationalism grew b/c:

  • 1) U.S. supported ruthless dictators that

would benefit US businesses

  • 2) US had always intervened militarily in LA

affairs (e.g. Haiti, Cuba, Mexico, etc.)

impact of gd on la
Impact of GD on LA
  • GD in USA & Europe = decrease in demand for LA exports
  • Since LA economies only exported 1 or 2 products, entire economy wrecked by GD
  • w/ less $$ from exports, LA countries didn’t have money to buy imports (e.g. manufactured goods)
impact of gd on la cont
Impact of GD on LA (cont.)
  • result: LA countries developed new domestic industries to produce own manufactured goods
  • while positive (decreased economic dependence on USA), also negative (LA gov’ts only ones w/ money to invest in new industries & thus took them over (socialism)
status check 1
Status Check #1

What were most Latin American economies based upon in the early 20th Century?

A) Manufactured goods

B) One dimensional export product

C) Technology

D) Weapons

status check 2
Status Check #2

Which country did the United States replace as the major investor in Latin America?

A) Great Britain

B) Spain

C) Portugal

D) France

government control
Government Control
  • Officially, most LA countries Republican (i.e. Democratic)
  • In reality, most LA countries controlled by a small group of church officials, military leaders, & large land Owners
  • Oligarchy: A gov’t in which a select group of people exercises control
oligarchy 1 argentina
Oligarchy #1: Argentina
  • Military controlled government
  • Overthrew HipolitoIrigoyen (Pres.)
  • wanted to re-establish landowners’ control of the country
oligarchy 1 argentina cont
Oligarchy #1: Argentina (cont.)
  • Ag economy kept everyone poor except landowner
  • Ind. economy gave workers wages (= new wealth)
  • Wealth = power & influence
oligarchy 2 brazil
Oligarchy #2: Brazil
  • GD wrecked demand (and thus price) for coffee (Brazil’s major export)
  • Military overthrew gov’t & appointed GetulioVargas (wealthy landowner) as


  • 1937: Vargas turned Brazil into authoritarian fascist dictatorship (“New State”)
vargas new state
Vargas & “New State”
  • 1) Political parties outlawed
  • 2) civil rights restricted
  • 3) secret police silenced all opposition
  • 4) Industrialized Brazil, but gov’t owned major

industries (steel & oil)

status check 3
Status Check #3

An oligarchy is a

A) country that claims to be a republic, but is

actually ruled by a zaibatsu.

B) system in which society owns the means of


C) government in which a select few exercise


D) government that glorifies the state above

the individual.

status check 4
Status Check #4

Which world event helped encourage authoritarianism (i.e. rise of oligarchies) in Latin America in the 1930s?

A) the rise in Communism

B) the end of World War I

C) the Great Depression

D) the division of Germany

institutional revolutionary party pri
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
  • official political party of the Mexican Revolution
  • controlled the most powerful/ influential groups within Mexican society (e.g. landowners)
  • Chose Pres. candidate that people ultimately voted for
president cardenas mexican nationalism
President Cardenas & Mexican Nationalism
  • Gave land to landless peasants in Mexico
  • Seized oil wells + equipment in Gulf of Mexico from foreign owned companies (e.g. American & British)
  • US President FDR did not send in military to protect US interests like previous presidents (e.g. Theodore Roosevelt)
status check 5
Status Check #5

The ____ controlled the major groups within Mexican society, thereby giving it enormous control over the Mexican presidency.

A) Mexican People’s Front

B) Institutional Revolutionary Party

C) People’s Liberation Army

D) Rural Peasants’ Collective