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  1. Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Chapter 35

  2. Asian Paths to Autonomy

  3. India’s Quest for Home Rule Indian National Congress Mohandas K. Gandhi The India Act • Against British rule • Hindu & Muslim supporters • Muslim League- worried • About Hindu aggression and • Subjugation • During war support, but after • War a scarcity of food and goods • British held down any revolts • Against their regime creating • A wave of violence and disorder • Charismatic Indian Leader • Moral philosophy of • Ahisma (tolerance & non- • Violence) • Satyagraha-passive • Resistance • Renounced material • Possessions • Active in Indian politics • Eradicate injustice of caste • System • Non-Cooperation Movement • Civil Disobedience Movement • Boycott British goods & • institutions • Political Compromise • Gov’t of India Act- • Institutions of self- • Governing state • Bicarmel legislature • Executive under British • Control • Unworkable: Prince refused • To cooperate, Muslims feared • Hindus in gov’t • Ali Jinnah- Head of Muslim • League, proposed two states • India & Pakistan “land of the • Pure”

  4. China’s Search for Order The Republic & Chinese Nationalism Sun Yatsen Civil War • Sun Yatsen dies leadership • Goes to Jiang Jieshi • Northern Expedition- • Political & military offensive • To unify China under • Guomindang • Turns against CCP in 1927 • Following year occupies • Beijing, sets gov’t in Nanjing, • Declares Guamindang official • Gov’t • 3 problems: 1) only controlled • Part of China, 2) Communist revo • Still a threat, 3)faced increasing • Japanese aggression • Permission to ward off CCP • Long March leads to supporters • Mao Zedong , communist leader • Against communist • Enthusiasm for dictator ship • Three Principles of the • People- 1)elimination of • Foreigner’s privileges, 2) • Nat’l reunification, 3) • Economic development, 4) • Demo-republican gov’t based • On universal suffrage • Nationalist People’s Party • OrGuomindang • Soviet organizers advised • Bothe the Guomindang and • Chinese Communist Party • A revolution in 1911 • Doesn’t est. stable gov’t • Previously ousted • generals gain power • (warlords) • Contribute to • Deterioration • Relationships strained • Between foreign powers • & native authority • After war nationalism • Develops • Hoped for an end to • Treaty systems but • Gave more power to Japan • May Fourth Movement • Become interested in • Marxist thought • Start Chinese Communist • Party

  5. Imperial and Imperialist Japan Imperial and Imperialist Japan The Mukden Incident • Accept int’l status quo as major power • Joined League of Nations as part of • “Big Five” • Agreed to limit naval development • Respect China’s territorial integrity • Kellogg-Brian Pact- renounced war as • An instrument of nat’l policy • Economic challenges post war • By 1930s public blamed gov’t for economic • Problems • Called for end to party rule • Manchuria usu. With China now a sphere • Of influence for Japan • 1931 Japan’s military asserts control over • region • Japanese built South Manchuria • Railway north of Mukden • Accused Chinese of attacking the • Railway, “Mukden Incident” • Pretext for war between Japan and • China • 1932 Japan controls all of Manchuria • Est. Machukuo • Jiang Jieshi goes to League of Nations • To complain, League sides with him, tells • Japan to return Manchuria • Japan leaves the League of Nations

  6. Africa under Colonial Domination

  7. Africa and the Great War War in Africa Challenges to European Authority • Allies invaded German Colonies in Africa • Anticipated the victor’s spoils after the war • German attempt a stronghold in Africa • With little success • 1 million Africans participated in WWI on • The front lines • Raised recruits 3 ways: voluntary, levies • By African chiefs and impressed personnel, and • Formal conscription • Africans challenged European authorities • European commercials and administration • Began to leave Africa • This led to attempts at uprisings and revolts • Inspiration for revolts came from a hatred • And resentment that came from mandatory • Conscription • Colonial forces suppressed any opposition

  8. The Colonial Economy Infrastructure Farming and Mining Labor Practices • Economic integration • Came by investing in • Infrastructure • Creation of port facilities, • Roads, railways & telegraph • Wires. • Linked agricultural and • Mineral wealth to the outside • Worth • Colonial taxation drove • Africans into the labor market • African farmers had to • Become cash crop farmers or • Seek wage labor • Oversees agricultural • Commodities stayed with the • White settlers • Outright forced labor • Almost slavery • Construction often • Brought about forced • labor

  9. African Nationalism Africa’s New Elite Forms of Nationalism • “new elite”- employed and educated usually • Study abroad • Jomo Kenyatta- articulate nationalist helped • Lead Kenya to independence • Africans who spoke and understood the • Language and world of the colonizer • Outward European inward African • Used European concepts of nationalism w/ • Africans • Looking for national identity by • Going to pre-colonial times • Two ways in establishing a state: • Based on ethnicity, religion and • Language or 2) geography

  10. Latin American Struggles with Neocolonialism

  11. The Impact of the Great War and the Great Depression Reorientation of Political And Nationalist Ideals University Protests & Communist Parties Diego Rivera and Radical Artistic Visions • New political possibilities • In L. America • Enlightenment ideals no • Longer served as the only • Political ideologies • Capitalism by the U.S. • Was under attack • Universities were the • First to attack this • Universities became the • Train ground for political • Leaders • Political parties supported • Communism and other forms • Of radical change • Alianza Popular Revolucionaria • Americana (APRA)- advocated • Indigenous rights and anti- • imperialism • Mexican Artist • Influenced by Renaissance • Artists and cubists • Artistic and political visions • Shown in murals in the masses • Celebrated Pre-Colombian • Folk traditions, Mexican art • And radical and political ideas

  12. The Evolution of Economic Imperialism The U.S. Economic Domination Economic Depression and Experimentation Dollar Diplomacy • Taft: “Dollars for Bullets” • In foreign policy • Foreign markets through • Peaceful commerce • Military intervention • Should be avoided • This new vision of expansion • Abroad was known as “Dollar • Diplomacy” • Great Depression showed • How much L. America was • Involved in the world economy • Halted 50 years of economic • Growth • Decline in L. America’s exports • No foreign capital in L. America, • Led to raised tariffs on foreign • Products • Took alternative paths to • Economic development • Industrialization (iron & steel) • Export-oriented economies • Been tied to global finance • And subject to foreign investor • Control • Neo-colonialism—growing • Foreign involvement in economic • Affairs

  13. Conflicts with a “Good Neighbor” Nicaragua and the GuardaNacional The “Good Neighbor Policy” • Reassessment of U.S. Foreign Policy • In L. America • Institutions of policy makers to better • Implement “Dollar Diplomacy” • Creation of “Sweetheart Treaties”- U.S. • Financial control (Caribbean), sent military • Forces to train indigenous in order to keep • And peace and maintain law and order • This idea spread into L. America creating • The “Good Neighbor Policy” • U.S. financial interest in Nicaragua gave • Reasons for them to intervene in Nicaraguan • Affairs • Augusto Cesar Sandino-nationalist & liberal • General, refused to accept peace settlement • That left U.S. military forces on the ground • Began the GuardaNacional-to remove • U.S. military forces and was successful • Officers from the National Guard murder Sandino • And Pro-U.S. ,Anastacio Somoza becomes president

  14. Conflicts with a “Good Neighbor” Cardenas Mexico Neighborly Cultural Exchanges • More conciliatory approach to • L. American relations. • “Convention on the Rights and • Duties “- no state has the right to • Intervene in the internal or external • Affairs of another • Lazaro Cardenas- Mexican president • (1895-1970)-nationalized oil industry • Brits and U.S. upset (they will get • Less profit) • The U.S. wanted to cultivate L. American • Markets for exports and distance itself from the • Militarism of Asia and European Imperial powers • Struggle of L. American migrants coming into • U.S. • Hollywood attempted to reconcile this • relationship by promoting more positive Latin • American images