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Nationalism in Latin America

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  1. Nationalism in Latin America HWH UNIT 5 CHAPTER 8.3

  2. Review of Latin American Society • Peninsulares: those born in Europe • Held all government positions • Creoles: American-born Spaniards • Resented Peninsulares • Mestizos: of both Native American and European heritage • Mulattoes: of both African and European heritage

  3. Impact of the Enlightenment, French Revolution, and Napoleon • Creoles identified with the Enlightenment • Simón Bolívar • French Revolutionary ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity inspired change • Napoleon’s invasion of Spain • Creoles saw weakened Spain as an opportunity for independence

  4. Haiti Gains Independence • Toussaint L’Ouverture • Slave Revolt, 1791 • Napoleon attacks, 1802 • L’Ouverture captured • Haitian Independence, 1820

  5. Mexican Independence • Father Miguel Hidalgo • The “Cry of Dolores”, 1810 • Rallied poor mestizos and Native Americans • Uprising failed • Hidalgo executed • No Creole support

  6. Mexican Independence • Father José Morelos • Mestizo priest • Led a revolt calling for social change in 1815 • Captured and killed • Revolt in Spain, 1820 • Agustín de Iturbide leads Mexico to independence • Emperor Agustín I • Mexico becomes a republic in 1824

  7. South American Independence • Simón Bolívar • “The Liberator” • Liberated Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia • Failed to create a “Gran Colombia” • Civil wars followed • José de San Martín • Joined with Bolívar • Liberated Argentina and Peru

  8. Brazilian Independence • When Napoleon’s army invaded Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil • Dom Pedro becomes Emperor