Topic 2: NationalismTopic 2A:Nationalist Revolutions in Latin America “It takes a revolution to make a solution.” -Bob Marley
Date______ Page____ Title: Revolutionary Ideas Spread Warm-up: What do you know about Latin America? Write down at least five facts.
Nationalism What is it? Nationalism- is a people's sense of belonging together as a nation. It also includes such feelings as loyalty to the nation, pride in its culture and history, and--in many cases--a desire for national independence. Nation vs. State Nation- State- A group of people with a shared culture, language, history, etc. who have the desire to have their own state. A political organization consisting of one or more nations of people.
Culture Nationality (ethnic ancestry) Territory Bonds that Create Nation-States Religion Common Language History
Causes of Latin American Revolutions • Enlightenment ideas inspire the educated Creoles • American Revolution ideals • French Revolution ideals • Oppression of lower classes • Napoleon’s conquest of Spain
Latin America Social Class Pyramid Directions: Copy this social class pyramid into your notebook. Peninsulares- Born in Spain Creoles- Europeans born in Latin America Mestizos- Native and European Mix Mulattos- European and African mix Africans Natives
Directions: Using the information in the chart below, create a pie graph that represents the percentage of population for each of the social classes. Color each wedge a different color and make a key. Once you have completed that, color the social class pyramid based on the key you created for your pie graph.
Countries in Central AmericaBelize - a country in Central America at the southeast border of Mexico and northeast of Guatemala.Costa Rica - a country just north of Panama.El Salvador - a country in Central America that is south of Guatemala and Honduras.Guatemala - a country in Central America south of Mexico and west of Belize.Honduras - a country northeast of Nicaragua.Nicaragua - a country just north of Costa Rica.Panama - a country at the southernmost tip of Central America. Label each country, then paste the map into your notebook. Other FeaturesAtlantic Ocean - the ocean east of Central America.Colombia - a country in northwestern South America; it is southeast of Panama.Lake Nicaragua - a large lake in Nicaragua.Mexico - a country southwest of the USA and north of Guatemala and Belize.Pacific Ocean - the ocean west of Central America.Panama Canal - a man-made canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Factors Leading to Revolution: • Social Injustice: colonial class structure- Creoles owned most land and wealth. Oligarchy- ruling elite. Mestizos, mulattoes, Indians, Africans have few rights. • Caudillos- local military strongmen- had own armies and gained control of governments- repressive, ignored existing constitutions. • Power of the Church: Catholic Church was a stabilizing influence, promoted education, in colonial times owned a lot of land. • Cash Crop Economies: colonies sent sugar, cotton, coffee to Europe – dependency on 1 crop=unstable economy. • Economic Imperialism: foreign investment helped develop mining and farming- developed ports and railroads, but only upper class and foreign investors profited; borrowed money at high rates from other nations and could not pay it back • Geographic Barriers: Andes Mountains, vast areas- hinder attempts at creating a unified Latin America. • Failure to Industrialize: lack of education and innovation • Peonage system: made workers practical slaves
Haiti • 1st Latin American colony to fight for independence. • Slavery – Africans were the majority of the population • White masters used brutal methods to control them • In 1791, about 100,000 slaves led a revolt against the French
Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave, became their leader • In 1802, Napoleon sent troops to the island to end the rebellion • They failed & in 1804 Haiti declared itself an independent nation • Slavery ended in Haiti
Impact of Toussaint L’Ouverture • Played a key role in what was the first successful attempt by a slave population in the Americas to throw off the yoke of Western colonialism. • Defeated armies of 3 imperial powers: Spain, France, and Great Britain • The success of the Haitian Revolution had enduring effects on shaking the institution of slavery throughout the New World. • Haiti became an independent republic in the Western Hemisphere.
Revolutions in Latin America • How were Indians & creoles oppressed under Spanish rule in Latin America? • What ideas influenced Simon Bolivar in his struggle to liberate Latin America? • How did Bolivar & his followers free Latin America from Spanish rule?