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"THE BIG 4" MACROMOLECULES. There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know. Macromolecule Polymer Monomer. What is a.

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slide1

"THE BIG 4"

MACROMOLECULES

There are four classes of biological macromolecules: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids

slide2

Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know.

  • Macromolecule
  • Polymer
  • Monomer
slide3

What is a

MACROMOLECULE

so what is a macromolecule
So What Is A Macromolecule?
  • A very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many smaller structural units linked together.
biological macromolecule
BiologicalMacromolecule

All biological macro-molecule are made up of a small number of elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur

elements of life
Elements of Life
  • 96% of living organisms is made of:
    • carbon (C)
    • oxygen (O)
    • hydrogen (H)
    • nitrogen (N)
    • phosphorus (P)
slide9

"Poly"

Polygons

Polyester

Polygamy

Means...

slide10

MANY

POLY means

a polymer
A Polymer

Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….

If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

a polymer1
A Polymer

Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….

If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers
Now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.
molecules of life
Molecules of Life
  • Put C, H, O, P, and N together in different ways to build living organisms
  • What are bodies made of?
    • carbohydrates
      • sugars & starches
    • proteins
    • fats (lipids)
    • nucleic acids
      • DNA, RNA
don t forget water
Don’t forget water
  • Water
    • 65% of your body is H2O
    • water is inorganic
      • doesn’t contain carbon
  • Rest of you is made of carbon molecules
    • organic molecules
      • carbohydrates
      • proteins
      • fats
      • nucleic acids
keep the following in mind when studying this material
Keep the following in mind when studying this material:

Nucleic Acids What they look like

Carbohydrates What they do/Where are they

Lipids What are they made up of-

at the level of atoms

Proteins

carbohydrates

sucrose

Carbohydrates
  • Function:
    • quick energy
    • energy storage
    • structure
      • cell wall in plants
  • Examples
    • sugars
    • starches
    • cellulose (cell wall)

glucoseC6H12O6

starch

cellulose
Cellulose
  • Cell walls in plants
    • herbivores can digest cellulose well
    • most carnivores cannot digest cellulose
      • that’s why they eat meatto get their energy & nutrients
      • cellulose = roughage
        • stays undigested
        • keeps material moving in your intestines
slide21
Different Diets of Herbivores

Cow

can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars

Gorilla

can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet

helpful bacteria
Helpful bacteria
  • How can cows digest cellulose so well?
    • BACTERIA live in their stomachs & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals
carbohydrates1
CARBOHYDRATES

MADE UP OF...

  • Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is…

GLUCOSE

carbohydrates2
CARBOHYDRATES

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each carbohydrate is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

THINK: “CHO”

building carbohydrates
Building carbohydrates
  • Synthesis

1 sugar = monosaccharide

2 sugars = disaccharide

|

glucose

|

glucose

|

maltose

big carbohydrates
BIG carbohydrates
  • Polysaccharides
    • large carbohydrates
      • starch
        • energy storage in plants
          • potatoes
      • glycogen
        • energy storage in animals
          • in liver & muscles
      • cellulose
        • structure in plants
          • cell walls
      • chitin
        • structure in arthropods & fungi
          • exoskeleton
building big carbohydrates
Building BIG carbohydrates

polysaccharide

glucose + glucose + glucose… =

starch

(plant)

energystorage

glycogen

(animal)

proteins
PROTEINS

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in them
  • They make up antibodies in the immune system
  • They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions
  • They makeup non-steriod hormones
proteins1

Proteins:

Multipurpose molecules

proteins2

insulin

pepsin

collagen (skin)

Proteins

Examples

  • muscle
  • skin, hair, fingernails, claws
    • collagen, keratin
  • pepsin
    • digestive enzyme in stomach
  • insulin
    • hormone that controls blood sugar levels
proteins3
Proteins
  • Function:
    • many, many functions
      • hormones
        • signals from one body system to another
        • insulin
      • movement
        • muscle
      • immune system
        • protect against germs
      • enzymes
        • help chemical reactions
proteins4

H

|

—C—

|

H

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

C—OH

—N—

O

||

H

Proteins
  • Building block =

amino acids

  • 20 different amino acids

There’s20 of us…

like 20 differentletters in analphabet!Can make lots of differentwords

variable group

amino acid chains

amino acid

amino acid

amino acid

amino acid

amino acid

Amino acid chains
  • Proteins
    • amino acids chained into a polymer
  • Each amino acid is different
    • some “like” water & dissolve in it
    • some “fear” water & separate from it
water fearing amino acids
Water-fearing amino acids
  • Hydrophobic
    • “water fearing” amino acids
    • try to get away from water in cell
      • the protein folds
water loving amino acids
Water-loving amino acids
  • Hydrophillic
    • “water loving” amino acids
    • try to stay in water in cell
      • the protein folds
for proteins shape matters

collagen

For proteins: SHAPE matters!
  • Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape
    • that’s what happens in the cell!
  • Different shapes = different jobs

growthhormone

hemoglobin

pepsin

it s shape that matters
It’s SHAPE that matters!
  • Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape
  • Unfolding a protein destroys its shape
    • wrong shape = can’t do its job
    • unfolding proteins = “denature”
      • temperature
      • pH (acidity)

unfolded“denatured”

folded

proteins5
PROTEINS

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each protein is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen,

Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur

THINK: “CHONS”

lipids
Lipids
  • Function:
    • energy storage
      • very concentrated
      • twice the energy as carbohydrates!
    • cell membrane
    • cushions organs
    • insulates body
      • think whale blubber!
lipids1
Lipids
  • Examples
    • fats
    • oils
    • waxes
    • hormones
      • sex hormones
        • testosterone (male)
        • estrogen (female)
lipids2
LIPIDS

MADE UP OF...

  • Lipids are not polymers. But they are created by the same process that creates polymers.
  • The most common lipids are…

TRIGLYCERIDES

the shape of a triglyceride is like the letter
The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter

E

This is a triglyceride molecule

structure of fat
Structure of Fat

not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”

saturated fats
Saturated fats
  • Most animal fats
    • solid at room temperature
  • Limit the amount in your diet
    • contributes to heart disease
    • deposits in arteries
unsaturated fats
Unsaturated fats
  • Plant, vegetable & fish fats
    • liquid at room temperature
      • the fat molecules don’t stack tightlytogether
  • Better choice in your diet
saturated vs unsaturated
Saturated vs. unsaturated

saturated

unsaturated

other lipids in biology
Other lipids in biology
  • Cholesterol
    • good molecule in cell membranes
    • make hormones from it
      • including sex hormones
    • but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease
other lipids in biology1
Other lipids in biology
  • Cell membranes are made out of lipids
    • phospholipids
    • heads are on the outside touching water
      • “like” water
    • tails are on inside away from water
      • “scared” of water
    • forms a barrier between the cell & the outside
lipids3
LIPIDS

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each lipid is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen…

and sometimes phosphorus

THINK: “CHOP”

the 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the nucleic acids
The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • The types of Nucleic Acids
    • DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid)
    • RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)
nucleic acids

proteins

DNA

Nucleic Acids
  • Function:
    • genetic material
      • stores information
        • genes
        • blueprint for building proteins
          • DNA  RNA  proteins
      • transfers information
        • blueprint for new cells
        • blueprint for next generation
slide53

Where are they found?

  • DNA
    • Inside the nucleus of a cell
  • RNA
    • Inside the nucleus and in the cytoplasm
slide54

Nucleic Acids are made of…

  • DNA and RNA are polymers of 4 different nucleotides (monomers)
  • Each nucleotide is composed of three parts:
    • a nitrogen base
      • DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T)
      • RNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), uracil (U)
    • a five-carbon sugar
      • Deoxyribose (DNA)
      • Ribose (RNA)
    • a phosphate group
  • DNA is double-sided
  • RNA is single-sided
nucleic acids1

sugar

N base

phosphate

Nucleic acids
slide56

DNA and RNA

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Phosphate, Hydrogen, Oxygen,

Nitrogen, and Carbon

Think “PHONC”

building large molecules of life
Building large molecules of life
  • Chain together smaller molecules
    • building block molecules = monomers
  • Big molecules built from little molecules
    • polymers
building large organic molecules
Building large organic molecules
  • Small molecules = building blocks
  • Bond them together =polymers
building important polymers

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

amino

acid

Building important polymers

Carbohydrates = built from sugars

sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar

Proteins = built from amino acids

Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides

nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide

how to build large molecules
How to build large molecules
  • Synthesis
    • building bigger molecules from smaller molecules
    • building cells & bodies
      • repair
      • growth
      • reproduction

+

ATP

how to take large molecules apart
How to take large molecules apart
  • Digestion
    • taking big molecules apart
    • getting raw materials
      • for synthesis & growth
    • making energy (ATP)
      • for synthesis, growth & everyday functions

+

ATP

example of digestion
Example of digestion

ATP

  • Starch is digested to glucose

ATP

ATP

ATP

ATP

ATP

starch

glucose

ATP

example of synthesis
Example of synthesis

amino acids = building block

protein = polymer

amino acids

protein

  • Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids
why do we eat
Why do we eat?
  • We eat to take in more of these chemicals
    • Food for building materials
      • to make more of us (cells)
      • for growth
      • for repair
    • Food to make energy
      • calories
      • to make ATP

ATP

what do we need to eat
What do we need to eat?
  • Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy
      • for building & running bodies
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • fats
    • nucleic acids
    • vitamins
    • minerals, salts
    • water