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MACROMOLECULES. Metabolic Processes. Metabolism is the sum of all biological processes. There are 2 major metabolic processes Anabolism – the building up of complex molecules Catabolism – the breaking down of complex molecules. Macromolecules. Large organic molecules (made of carbon)

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Metabolic processes
Metabolic Processes

  • Metabolism is the sum of all biological processes.

  • There are 2 major metabolic processes

    • Anabolism – the building up of complex molecules

    • Catabolism – the breaking down of complex molecules


Macromolecules1
Macromolecules

  • Large organic molecules (made of carbon)

  • Known as polymers

  • Made up of smaller “building blocks” – monomers

  • Formed through a process known as dehydration synthesis

    • Forms polymers by combining monomers by removing water

  • Separated through a process known as hydrolysis

    • Monomers are separated through the addition of water


4 major types of macromolecules
4 Major Types of Macromolecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic Acids



Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates examples of carbohydrates?

  • Sugar molecules (ranging from small sugars to large sugars)

  • Have the molecular formula (CH2O)n


Carbohydrates1

glucose examples of carbohydrates?

glucose

glucose

glucose

cellulose

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose

Carbohydrates

  • Monomers – monosaccharides: a single sugar unit

  • Polymers – disaccharides (two sugar units) and polysaccharides (many sugar units)


Carbohydrate function
Carbohydrate - Function examples of carbohydrates?

  • Main source of energy for the body

  • Provide short term energy – will be used up in short periods of time

  • Structure/Support – make up the cell wall in plants

  • Examples: Starch, glucose, cellulose


Check for Understanding: examples of carbohydrates?

With your partner, identify the following as polymers or monomers.


Lipids
Lipids examples of carbohydrates?

  • Compounds that are not soluble in water

  • General structure of a lipd

  • Saturdatedfatty acids – have single C-C bonds

  • Unsaturated fatty acids – have at least 1 double C-C bond


Lipids1

O examples of carbohydrates?

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

=

H

H-C----O

H-C----O

H-C----O

H

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

=

O

C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH

fatty acids

=

=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

glycerol

Lipids

  • Monors – triglycerides

    • Made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids

  • No polymers


Lipids functions
Lipids - functions examples of carbohydrates?

  • Long term energy storage

  • Protection against heat loss

  • Major component of membranes (phospholipids)

  • Examples: cholesterol, oils, waxes


Check for Understanding: examples of carbohydrates?

With your partner, label the fatty acids below as either saturated or unsaturated.


Proteins
Proteins examples of carbohydrates?

  • Polypeptide chains made from amino acids

  • Have a 3 dimensional globular shape

  • Amino acids are made of carbon, hydrogen, amino group, carboxyl acid, variable R group


Proteins1
Proteins examples of carbohydrates?

  • Monomer – amino acids

    • 2 types of amino acids

      • Essential – cannot be made by the body (need to be consumed)

      • Non-essential – can be made by the body

  • Polymer – polypeptide chain


Proteins function
Proteins - function examples of carbohydrates?

  • Storage

  • Transport of materials

  • Movement: muscles

  • Enzymes: aid in cellular reactions

  • Defense: antibodies (defend your body from infections)

  • Examples: enzymes, hormones


With your partner, place a star next to each of the structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.


Nucleic acids

Phosphate structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.

Group

O

O=P-O

O

5

CH2

O

N

Nitrogenous base

(A, G, C, or T)

C1

C4

Sugar

(deoxyribose)

C3

C2

Nucleic Acids

  • Compounds that are made up of nucleotides


Nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.

  • Monomers – nucleotides

  • Polymer – DNA/RNA

    • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid

      • Genetic material

      • Codes for proteins

    • RNA – ribonucleic acid

      • Reads the DNA

      • Makes proteins


Nucleic acids function
Nucleic Acids - Function structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.

  • Store genetic information

  • Transmit heredity

  • Examples: DNA & RNA


Check for Understanding: structures below that is an amino acid and tell me why.

With your partner, place a star next to each of the structures below that represent the nitrogenous base component of a nucleotide. Be sure to include why.


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