Warm Up #20 Based on the Cold War Ideologies Chart which would you prefer as a citizen?
Scaffold understanding of the standard(s) and/or element(s).Paraphrase the standard(s). Rewrite the standard including synonyms or brief definitions in parentheses and in a different color following the key terms found in step 1. SSWH20 Demonstrate (Prove) an understanding of the global social, economic, and political impact of the Cold War and decolonization (take away colonies) from 1945 to 1989.
Class Confession • We the Senior Class of 2020 will complete ALL of our assignments to the best of our abilities and behave appropriately in class. • We will respect all faculty, staff, substitutes, classmates, and especially Mr. Wilcox. • We will graduate on time May 2020 and become productive citizens in society.
Cold War SSWH20 A. Explain the arms race, include: development of nuclear weapons, and efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
From 1945 to 1991, the USA & USSR used a variety of strategies to win the Cold War
In the early years of the Cold War (1945-1949), the USA used a containment policy to successfully stop the spread of communism in Europe Marshall Plan NATO Berlin Airlift Truman Doctrine
When communism spread to China in 1949, the USA feared the “domino theory” & became more aggressive in its efforts to stop communism The USA went to war in Korea to defend South Korea from communism The Soviet Union supplied weapons to the communists in North Korea during the war The type of indirect fight between the USA & USSR is called a “proxy war”
From 1949 to 1970, the Cold War escalated as a result of a nuclear arms race, space race, & espionage
The U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons ended in 1949 when the USSR successfully tested an atomic bomb The Soviet development of the atomic bomb led to a nuclear arms race between the USA & USSR
In 1952, the USA tested the first hydrogen bomb which is 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb The Soviet Union responded by detonating its own hydrogen bomb in 1953
By 1959, both the USA & USSR developed rockets called intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that could deliver nuclear warheads to distant targets U.S. Polaris Submarine Soviet Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) U.S. Titan ICMB from the 1960s Soviet ICMBs from 1960-1975
In the 1950s, U.S. President Eisenhower escalated the Cold War by using brinkmanship: threatening to use nuclear weapons & willingness to go to the brink of war If the USSR attacked a NATO member, the U.S. would use massive retaliation: attack every major Soviet city & military target As a result, the USA & USSR began stockpiling nuclear weapons & building up their militaries
With the USA & USSR in possession of large nuclear stockpiles, each side could destroy each other: this was known as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Throughout the Cold War, the USA & USSR looked for ways to gain first strike capability
The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the United States & Soviet Union to a near nuclear war in 1962
Cold War SSWH20 B. Describe the formation of the state of Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict.
The Founding of Israel • During and after World War II, thousands of Jewish refugees had left Europe for Palestine. • Hitler’s murder of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust showed the need for a homeland where Jews could live in safety. • Arabs, unhappy to be giving up their land to the Jews, began attacking Jewish settlements. • Unable to end the violence, and exhausted by World War II, Britain withdrew from Palestine and turned the area over to the United Nations.
Partition and War • In 1947, the UN recommended that Palestine be partitioned , or divided, into a Jewish state and an Arab state. • Zionists accepted the plan. • Arabs, however, objected to giving any territory to Jews. • When the last British troops left Palestine in May 1948, Jews announced the creation of the state of Israel. • Israel then won recognition from major world powers.
Arab-Israeli War • To neighboring Arabs, Israel was a creation of the western powers who wanted to continue their domination of the Middle East. • Vowing to destroy Israel, Arab nations declared war at once. • Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon send separate military forces against Israel. • Despite suffering heavy losses, Israel defended itself and defeated the divided Arab forces.
Palestinian Refugees • More than 500,000 Arabs fled or were driven out of Palestine during and after the 1948 war. • Many Palestinians settled in UN Israel. • These camps were designed to be temporary, but soon became home to several generations of Palestinians. • Arab and Palestinian leaders resisted leaving these camps because they felt that would be interpreted as a willingness to give up their goal of regaining a Palestinian homeland.
Continued Conflict • Since the 1948 war, the conflict between Israel and its Arab neighbors had erupted into three more wars. • While Israel won each of these wars, its enemies were not entirely defeated. • Cold War • During the Cold War, the United States provided military and economic aid to Israel. • Israel’s Arab enemies turned to the Soviet Union for support.
PLO • In 1964, Palestinian leaders formed the Palestine Liberation Organization to reclaim Palestine and destroy Israel. • PLO activists waged guerrilla war against Israel. • By the 1970s, the PLO and other radical groups spread the Arab-Israeli conflict beyond the Middle East. • They lashed out at the United States and other nations which had supported Israel. • They often used kidnappings, assassinations, and terror attacks to achieve their means. Former PLO President Yasser Arafat
The Struggle to Achieve Peace • Peace between Israel and the Arab world has been difficult. • Over the years, several peace attempts have been made: • United States: President Carter, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat. • Egypt agreed to recognize Israel in order to gain formerly lost land. • The Arab world saw Egypt as betraying them. • Sadat was assassinated two years later.
Cold War SSWH20 C. Analyze the rise of nationalism and the revolutionary movements in Asia (i.e. India and China) and Africa. https://www.flocabulary.com/unit/postcolonialism/
World War II • Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI and as a result of the global depression • Costs of empire • US support of anti-colonial liberation movements • Atlantic Charter (1941) “right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live” • Soviets condemned colonialism
Indian Independence • August 1947 Pakistan and India gained independence. • Mass killings of Muslims and Hindus (1 million) followed by mass migrations (12 million). (Gandhi fasted to prevent war-> assassination) • Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister, began modernization campaign.
Africa for Africans • Nationalists composed of ex-servicemen, urban unemployed & under-employed, and the educated. • Pan-Africanism • Senghor (Senegal) and Dubois (African-American)
De-colonization in Africa • 1957, Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) independence, led by western- educated, Kwame Nkrumah. • By 1963, all of British ruled Africa, except Southern Rhodesia, was independent.
Conclusions • Decolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony. • In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred. • Significant challenges faced independent nations.
Cold War SSWH20 D. Analyze opposition movements to existing political systems, include: anti-apartheid, Tiananmen Square, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.
South Africa • Colonized first by the Dutch and then the British, South Africa had been dominated by white minority rule. • White South Africans became known as Afrikaners and, despite the country being decolonized after WWII, held the majority of the wealth and power in the nation. • Over the next decades, Afrikaners instituted policies to retain their status under a system call Apartheid (“Apartness”).
Rules Under Apartheid • The Population Registration Act of 1950 required all citizens of South Africa to be classified into racial categories. • The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953 created separate public facilities to be used by whites and blacks. • Blacks forfeited their civil rights under several laws passed by the government, which barred them from participating in political activity or even exercise their democratic rights.
Nelson Mandela The most influential anti-Apartheid activist
Nelson Mandela • The most famous anti-apartheid activist was Nelson Mandela. He was actively involved in the movement since the 1940s. • He was a supporter of nonviolent resistance and staged many peaceful protests that resulted in extreme government reactions. • He was arrested three times for attempting to overthrow the govt. The final arrest resulted in a guilty verdict at his trial and he was sentenced to life in prison and eventually served 27 years.
The Death of Mao Zedong • After the death of communist dictator Mao Zedong, the leaders that followed attempted reforms to develop a more liberal form of communism. • University students and professors began making speeches and printing articles about freedom and democracy. • Hu Yaobing, a Chinese leader who had been fairly tolerant of student demonstrations, died on April 15, 1989.
Students in Beijing mourned his passing by meeting in Tiananmen Square and voicing their grievances.
On April 26, The Communist Party newspaper People's Daily accused “an extremely small number of people with ulterior purposes” of inciting the students to unrest in order to overthrow the Communist government. • There were warnings to students that force might be used.
On June 4, troops opened fire on the crowd. 2,600 were estimated dead and 10,000 injured. • 500 tanks and 300,000 soldiers occupied Beijing. On June 11, there were massive arrests. • The near-revolution was over.
The Berlin Wall • The most iconic symbol of the Cold War was the Berlin Wall, constructed in 1961 to keep East Berliners from escaping their communist government.
The Berlin Wall became the iconic image of the Cold War Walls and other barriers 10–15 feet high surrounded West Berlin. The length of the barriers around the city totaled about 110 miles The “death strip” stretched like a barren moat around West Berlin, with patrols, floodlights, electric fences, and vehicle traps between the inner and outer walls
The Berlin Wall • Once the Wall was completed, it was virtually impenetrable. • Guards patrolled at all times, allowing people to only pass through designated checkpoints after an exhaustive investigation. • Thousands were caught attempting to climb the Wall into West Berlin. They were either arrested, imprisoned or shot on sight by East Berlin guards. • For decades, family members and friends had no contact with each other, even though they were in the same city.
By 1989, Soviet control of Eastern Europe was weakening. • A series of revolutions, mostly peaceful, led to the independence of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Romania. • This revolutionary fervor spread to East Germany and East Berlin. • Though East German communist leaders had no desire to allow freedoms, their reliance on the weakening Soviet Union made it impossible to expect help in putting down the demonstrations and protests that were spreading.