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The International Conference on the Great Lakes (IC/GLR)

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  1. The International Conference on the Great Lakes (IC/GLR) Overview of ICGLR Legal Framework: New Perspective Relevant for IDP Protection Joseph Chilengi Africa IDP Voice Oxford 2007

  2. Overview 1 • Objectives, Principles and Stakeholders • Stages in the process • The Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region • Components of the Pact • Implementation issues • Challenges • Opportunities to address displacement in the region • Conclusion

  3. Tunisia Morocco Algeria Libya Egypt Western-Sahara Mauritania Mali Niger Eritrea Kap Verde Senegal Chad Gambia Sudan Burkina Faso Guinea-Bissau Djibouti Guinea Benin Somalia Ethiopia Nigeria Sierra Leone IvoryCoast Ghana Central African Republic Liberia Cameroon Togo Equatorial Guinea Kenya Uganda Congo Sao Tome & Principe Gabon Democratic Republic of Congo Rwanda IC/GLR Member Countries Tanzania Burundi Co-opted Countries involved Comoros Angola Mozambique Zambia Mauritius Zimbabwe Madagascar Malawi Namibia Reunion Botswana Swaziland South Africa Lesotho IC/GLR Member States and Co-opted Countries

  4. Point of departure • Awareness that national conflicts in the GLR had a regional dimension; • People of the GLR interlinked, hence instability in one country affects neighbours; • Need to seek a regional approach for sustainable peace and development; • Innovative approach complementing national initiatives, • Building on partnerships: The core countries, the co-opted countries, RECs, UN, AU, Group of Friends, • Reflecting ownership and inclusiveness: Eleven core countries and other groups of society

  5. Burundi DRC Rwanda Uganda Kenya Tanzania Zambia Angola CAR Rep. Of Congo Sudan

  6. Objectives of the IC/GLR A regional and international response to the challenges of the region to transform it into a space for: • sustainable peace and security • political and social stability • shared growth and development • cooperation and convergence Through implementation of the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region

  7. Principles of the Process

  8. Stakeholders: Governments and Society Parliamentarians ANG BUR Private Sector ZAM CAR The Pact TAN Youth DRC Conference Secretariat UGA KEN IC/GLR SUD RWA Civil Society Women RoC

  9. Stakeholders: Member States and Partners ANG BUR AU and RECs ZAM CAR Group of Friends The Pact TAN Conference Secretariat DRC UGA KEN IC/GLR SUD RWA RoC UN-System Coopted Countries

  10. IC/GLR: A long-term process not just an event • From the mid-90ties to 2003: Diplomatic efforts to get countries concerned ready for and involved in a comprehensive Peace Conference • Phase (mid 2003 to November 2004):Laying the foundations of cooperation and agreeing on principles: The Dar Es Salaam Declaration (DD) • Phase (12/2004 to December 2006):Elaboration of joint regional programmes of action, protocols and follow-up mechanism which together with the DD form the: Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region • Phase (2007 ) Implementation of the PACT through the eleven member states and other partners implementing Regional Programmes of Action and protocols:

  11. Steps in the 2nd phase of the process RPC/RIMC 07/ 2005 Lusaka 1st SUMMIT Nov. 2004 DDDar RPC/RIMC 02/ 2005 Kigali TTTF 06 NBO TTTF 09 NBO TTTF 04 MSA NC 01/06 NBO Experts 02 KAM RPC/ RIMC 02/ 2006 Bangui NC/REC 03/06 ADD RPC 10/05 Luanda Experts 01 BRAZ Experts 03 KAM RIMC 09/ 2006 NYC RIMC 12/ 2006 NBO NC/REC 05/06 NBO RIMC 07/ 2006 Banjul 2nd SUMMIT 12/ 2006 PACT NBO CSO, ♀♀, Y 05/06 KIG GBV 09 NBO PPP 05/06 LUS


  13. The Dar Es Salaam Declaration Vision Priority Policy Options and Guiding Principles: The DD is the foundation for a common vision for reconstruction, political stability and sustainable development in the Great Lakes Region Democracy and Good Governance Peace and Security Economic Development and Regional Integration Humanitarian and Social Issues Cross-cutting Issues: Gender, Human Rights, Environment, Human Settlement, HIV/Aids

  14. 10 REGIONAL PROTOCOLS • Non-Aggression and Mutual Defense in the Great Lakes Region; • Democracy and Good Governance; • Judicial Cooperation; • Prevention of and Curbing Crime of Genocide, Crimes of War, Crimes against Humanity; • Prevention of illegal exploitation of natural resources in the GLR;

  15. 10 REGIONAL PROTOCOLS (cont’d) • Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone; • Protection and assistance to internally displaced persons; • Property rights of returning populations; • Prevention and suppression of sexual violence against women and children; • Management of Information and Communication

  16. REGIONAL PROGRAMS OF ACTION AND PROJECTS Democracy and Good Governance Peace and Security Economic Development and Regional Integration Humanitarian and Social Issues 10 SUB-PROGRAMMES (33 projects) Cooperation in (3) Poverty Reduction Disaster preparedness, protection & assistance to IDP’s and refugees and environment (4) Joint Security Management of Common Borders (5) Rule of Law, and Human Rights and the Fight of Crimes against Humanity (2) Harmonization and Strengthening of Regional cooperation policies (2) Interstate Cooperation on Peace and Security (2) Rational Management of Resources (1) Resumption of basic social services, health care and psycho-social support to groups with special needs (3) Consolidation of Democratic Processes (1) Infrastructure Development (10)

  17. THE SPECIAL RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT FUND (SRDF) • Is the main financing instrument for the implementation of the Projects and Protocols; • Has been initiated by the Heads of State and Government in the DD, art. 53; • Will be fed by contributions of Member States and international partners; • Will be managed and housed by the AfDB. • Should get into operation in 2007

  18. Regional Follow-up Mechanism Organs Functions SUMMITs (every 2 years) Directs implementation of the PACT; Approves budgetary resources;Assesses progress in implementation;Conflict prevention & crisis management Troika between Summits INTERMINISTERIAL COMMITTEE Bi-annual meetings Executive Organ: Devise strategies and monitor implementation of PACT, consider budgetary and operational adjustments, establish Group of Experts for special reports Ad-hoc Group of Experts CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Technical arm/ coordinating body (details see extra slide); Maintain contacts with conference secretariat and ensure participation of other relevant groups (e.g. youth, women, CSO, Private Sector) in the implementation of the PACT NATIONAL COORDINATION MECHANISMS

  19. The Conference Secretariat: Functions The CS is the Technical arm/ coordinating body of the Conference. Its functions are to: • Ensure implementation of summit and Ministers decisions; • Promotion of Pact, initiating and monitoring the execution of Programs of Action and Protocols; • Organizing meetings; reporting; harmonizing cooperation with partners; • Drawing up CS programs of activities, budgets and ensuring their implementation


  21. Implementation of protocols, programs of action and projects • Mobilization of financial resources; • Sensitization process for implementation of the PACT; • Ratification of Pact and domestication of protocols; • Preparation for program implementation/ up-date of project planning; • Finalizing MoUs with implementing institutions; • Preparation of monitoring and evaluation methodology.

  22. Challenges • Ensuring ownership of the process by Member States; • Securing funding for implementation of the Pact; • Assuring added value of the process to the existing initiatives and creating tangible benefits for the people in the region; • Desisting from unilateral approaches in regional conflict management; • Sustaining dialogue and confidence building among the Member States and partners.

  23. How can partners assist in the implementation of the PACT ? • Advocacy, lobbying for and using the IC/GLR and the PACT as a reference point and legal framework for action; • Funding/ promoting individual projects e.g. by utilizing existing bilateral or multilateral mechanisms; • Alignment of bilateral and multilateral support to national projects which are segments of IC/GLR regional priority projects; • Direct allocations to the Special Fund; • Contributing to the continuous involvement of other actors in the process e.g. civil society, women, youth;

  24. Specific opportunities arising from IC/GLR to address forced displacement issues • Pact constitutes a legal framework for regional and cross-border actions; • Innovative elements: 3 Protocols on • Protection/ assistance to IDPs; • Property rights of returning populations • Prevention and suppression of sexual violence against women and children; • Development of Model Legislation for the Domestication of these Protocols


  26. Sub Programme 1: Disaster preparedness, protection and assistance to IDPs, refugees and the environment The Projects: Compliance with Intl; Instruments on HR, humanitarian law, ID-documents to IDPs, refugees and stateless person; Protection, assistance and search for durable solutions for displaced persons and communities that host them; Environmental assessment, restoration and rehabilitation of human settlements Legal framework on issues related to recovery of land and property for returning persons The Programme of Action on Humanitarian and Social Issues

  27. Process Conclusions • Implementing the PACT is a huge challenge, but at the same time a unique chance for the region; • Provides important new opportunities for humanitarian and social action for refugees and IDPs; • IC/GLR should be a point of reference for any support to action in the region and the respective country programs.

  28. OUTLINE OF LEGAL PRESENTATION • Highlights of ICGLR LegalProcess • Pact • Protocol on IDPs • Projects: IDPS & Their Environment • Along: • Opportunities; Challenges; Remedies • Background & Context

  29. BACKGROUND/CONTEXT • UNSC Resolution • DSM Declaration & Concept • 4 Thematic Groups • Protocols - Ten… • Pact • Program/Action • Project Documents

  30. LEGAL FRAMEWORK • Ideally • Hierarchical Order/ Related but Indep • Treaty/Protocols/et als Implementing … • Schedules/Appendices • GCs & APs • ICCPR & Protocols • Constitutive Act & Protocols • EAC Treaty & Protocol on the CU

  31. ICGLR • 2004 DD – Political/Treaty? • 2006 Protocols (et Progs & Projects) • In Implementing DD • 2006 Pact • Pact Implementing: • DD; Protocols; Progs etc • These – integral parts of Pact

  32. ICGLR LEGAL INSTITUTIONS • Summit • Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee • ad hoc Group of Experts • Conference Secretariat • National Coordination Mechanism

  33. PACT…I • Preamble • Goal of Process: • Durable Peace, Security, Stability, Dev • Joint, Coordinated Measures • Participatory - CSOs • Basis Principles of IL • Protection Assistance Displaced • Determination translate into Reality

  34. …OPPORTUNITIES • Recognition inter-linkages • Impunity, Conflict, FD • Reservations • Non-Selectivity in Implementation • High Threshold: • Amendments • Withdrawal

  35. PACT… II/Entry Points • Ltd re Centres of Power! • Besides Preamble • National Coord Mechanisms - Art 1, 27 • Regional Follow-Up Mechanism – Art 1 • Art 18 Prog Democracy GG • Promote political participation…

  36. CHALLENGES • Hierarchical Link/Pact/Protocols • Force of Law within MS • Harmonisation re ML • Harmonisation et als treaty obligations • Entry Points for CSO • re: Centres of real power in ICGLR! • Applicability to refugees

  37. PROTOCOL…re Pact • Commitment IHL re Displaced • Art 12: • Undertaking implement GPs • Art 20: • Implement Prog Action • Diverse Causes FM • Prevention • Errant MS - Summit

  38. PROTOCOL… I • Present: binding/Institutional/Definition • Protocol: definition/legal void • Institutional Mech? • Experts: • Effective monitoring • Institutional machinery • At all Phases • nb: AU model

  39. PROTOCOL… II • Clear obligation adopt/Impl GPs • Domesticate GPs • ML: • Definition • Regulate Development Induced … • Identify Govt Agencies with Responsibility • nb: wide participation incld CSO/Pax!

  40. PROJECTS… • Humanitarian & Social Issue Theme • Prog: ‘Disaster Prep Prot & Asst to IDPs’ • Projects • Property Rights Returnees • Rehab of Camps & RHAs