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Making Vaccines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Making Vaccines. Effective Vaccines. Have low levels of side effects or toxicity. Protect against exposure to natural, or wild forms of the pathogen. Should stimulate both an antibody (B-cell) response and a cell mediated (T-cell) response.

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effective vaccines
Effective Vaccines
  • Have low levels of side effects or toxicity.
  • Protect against exposure to natural, or wild forms of the pathogen.
  • Should stimulate both an antibody (B-cell) response and a cell mediated (T-cell) response.
  • Have long term, lasting effects that produce immunological memory.
  • Should not require numerous doses or boosters
  • Are inexpensive, have a long shelf life and are easy to administer.
routes of administration
Routes of Administration
  • The majority of vaccines are administered by injection
    • Subcutaneous
    • Intramuscular
    • Intradermal
  • Oral vaccines are available for only a few diseases
live attenuated weakened cells viruses
Live, attenuated (weakened) cells (viruses)
  • Vaccines are longer-lasting and require fewer boosters
  • However, the disease agent could mutate back to pathogenic strain
  • Harder to make this type for bacteria – usu. viruses
  • Example: MMR, Varicella zoster
killed whole cells or inactivated viruses
Killed whole cells or inactivated viruses
  • Even though they are harmless, they still contain recognizable antigens on their surface
  • Because the microbe does not multiply, a weaker immune response is stimulated vs. live vaccines
  • larger doses and more boosters are required.
  • Example:Polio virus
toxoid vaccines
Toxoid vaccines
  • A purified toxin produced by the antigen is used to elicit immune response.
  • Example: DTaP
    • Diptheria, Tetanus and acellularPertussis
subunit vaccines
Subunit Vaccines
  • Subunit vaccines contain just the antigens of the microbe that best stimulate the immune system.
  • Antigens that have been separated from the rest of the microbe
  • Examples: Hepatitis B, Gardasil, Influenza
genetically engineered microbes or microbial antigens
Genetically engineered microbes or microbial antigens
  • Genes for microbial antigens are inserted into a plasmid vector and are cloned in appropriate hosts.
  • The resultant protein product is used to provoke immune system.
dna vaccines
DNA vaccines
  • These vaccines contain all or part of the pathogen DNA, which is used to “infect” a recipient’s cells.
herd immunity
Herd Immunity
  • More individuals that are immune decreases the incidence of the disease and the occurrence of the pathogen.
  • With greater numbers immunized, it is less likely that an unimmunized person will encounter the pathogen.
  • Mass vaccination confers indirect protection for those who do not receive the vaccine resulting in “herd immunity”.