Vaccines. “Material producing an immune reaction and an acquired immunity to a natural microorganism” Dictionary of Biology, 1995. “Immunisation is the most generally applicable way of preventing infectious disease.
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“Material producing an immune reaction and an acquired immunity to a natural microorganism”
Dictionary of Biology, 1995
The control of so many important ... diseases by immunisation is arguably the most outstanding medical achievement of the twentieth century, recognised by the award of several Nobel prizes”
White & Fenner, Medical Virology, 1994
“Every year, up to three million children's lives are saved by immunization“
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens - from microorganisms or synthesised - attached to protein carrier molecules.
The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Examples are H. influenza (Hib), N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae
Ali Maalim, last recorded case of naturally-caused smallpox
Monkeypox was first identified in laboratory monkeys in 1958, and the first human case was reported in 1970 in a child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is now considered endemic in parts of central and western Africa.
In May of 2003, the first cases in the USA of monkeypox were reported among members of a family in Wisconsin, who had bought two prairie dogs as pets 11 days before the mother developed fever, headache, sore throat, dyspnea, and malaise along with a small papule, then a more severe rash with more than 200 lesions. The daughter presented with more severe illness that included rash, lymphadenopathy, malaise, enlarged tonsils, and fever. She eventually developed encephalitis, became unresponsive, and required intensive care. A fourth case was diagnosed in the distributor of exotic animals who had sold the two prairie dogs to the family first affected, thus establishing an epidemiological link between them (Reed et al., 2004).
In this outbreak, 72 cases of monkeypox were reported to the CDC
Epidemiological investigation revealed that those two prairie dogs and others were co-housed with an infected Gambian giant rat from Ghana and other exotic rodent species.
Smallpox vaccine is effective at protecting people against monkeypox when it is given before they are exposed to monkeypox.
KILLED WHOLE-VIRUS VACCINE
29 million to 58 million
Number of Americans hospitalized per season:
Number of deaths:
Number of vaccine doses produced in a season:
World maximum capacity of 450 million doses/yr
[Erica] Check explains that pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to invest large sums of money making a vaccine for a pandemic that might never happen. …
Developing countries in Asia, which are most likely to be the source of pandemic, have little capacity to make vaccines or buy stocks from other countries.
More than 2 billion people alive today have at some time been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Of these, about 350 million remain chronically infected carriers. Every year there are over 4 million acute clinical cases of hepatitis B and about a million deaths.
Get vaccinated! Hepatitis B is preventable.
Recombinant / killed vaccine
Acute diarrhoea is responsible for nearly 1.9 million deaths per year in children under age five. Rotavirus is responsible for as much as 25% of these, almost all of which occur in developing countries.
“At present, vaccine development is based on current market demand rather than epidemiological realities.”
- WHO Vaccines Report, 1996Effective Vaccines Not Commonly Used in Developing Countries
in vitro & animal studies
Experiments in rodents and primates
Likelihood of protection
3 million children die of EPI vaccine preventable diseases every year
Source: WHO/UNICEF estimates, 2002
global coverage at 73% in 2001
Source: WHO/UNICEF estimates, 2002