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Vaccines. Vaccines. Our defense mechanism→ Production of white blood cells and antibodies What does it mean to have immunity? It is the capacity to resist a disease that we have been exposed to by being able to fight off the infectious agent that causes the disease. White Blood Cells.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Our defense mechanism→

Production of white blood cells and antibodies

  • What does it mean to have immunity?
  • It is the capacity to resist a disease that we have been exposed to by being able to fight off the infectious agent that causes the disease
white blood cells
White Blood Cells
  • 2 ways of Defense
  • Destroy infectious agents through PHAGOCYTOSIS

2. Produce antibodies→ neutralize infectious agent and antigens they produce

white blood cells1
White Blood Cells
  • When exposed to infectious agent, our bodies produce antibodies to defeat it.
  • Can take a few days or weeks to get the right antibodies (trial + error)
  • If infectious agent is really dangerous, could have enough time to do some damage to body
  • If infectious agent is re-introduced, will be defeated!
white blood cells2
White Blood Cells
  • Our immune system “REMEMBERS”
  • Copies of antibodies will forever remain in our bodies
  • Introduce “weakened” infectious agent into the body
  • Cannot hurt us
  • Just strong enough to teach body how to defeat it
  • Not strong enough to take over
  • Allows our bodies to defeat the disease if exposed to it
vaccine manufacturing
Vaccine Manufacturing
  • Cell culture of infectious agent (growing cells)
  • The cells are harmless
  • Result is : LIVE VACCINE


live vaccine
Live vaccine
  • Contains “live” infectious agent
  • Infectious agent is chemically treated to make it impossible for it to cause the illness
  • In order for the cells to live longer, they are mixed with other substances
  • It is still alive!
  • Live vaccines usually cause a more aggressive immune response
live vaccine1
Live Vaccine
  • Very rare: infectious agent can become “virulent”, meaning it can become strong enough to cause the disease instead of immunizing it!
  • Examples: polio vaccine, mumps, measles, chicken pox vaccine, H1N1, yellow fever, tuberculosis, seasonal flu…
  • 2 methods of creating a live vaccine
live vaccine2
Live Vaccine
  • Traditional method:
  • Culture of infectious agent(growing the cells)
  • Chemical treatment of infectious agent to make it harmless
  • Addition of chemicals (to allow cells to live longer)
live vaccine3
Live Vaccine
  • Genetic Transformation Method
  • Genetically changing the cells of infectious agent
  • Culture of modified infectious agent (grow cells)
  • Addition of chemicals (to allow cells to live longer)
inactive vaccine
Inactive Vaccine
  • Does not contain anylive infectious agent
  • Made by using only a part or parts of the infectious agent
  • These parts can still be recognized by the body’s antibodies
  • Parts are called = ANTIGENS
  • Find which antigens are causing the disease
inactive vaccine1
Inactive Vaccine
  • Isolate them and then treat them so that they become harmless
  • Examples: Meningitis, hepatitis A & B, tetanus…
  • 2 ways of producing inactive vaccines
inactive vaccine2
Inactive Vaccine
  • Traditional Method
  • Culture infectious agent
  • Isolate antigen
  • Addition of antigen to other pharmaceutical products for increased “shelf life”
inactive vaccine3
Inactive Vaccine
  • Genetic Transformation Method
  • Introduction of a gene that produces the antigen in a microorganism
  • Culture the microorganism
  • Isolate antigen
  • Addition of antigen to pharmaceutical products to increase “shelf life”
  • 2 types
  • Heterogeneous
  • Homogeneous
heterogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixtures
  • Made up of at least 2 substances that can be seen with the “naked eye”
  • Examples: Vegetable soup


Salt+ pepper mix


Blizzard at DQ

homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous Mixtures
  • Made up of at least 2 substances that cannot be seen by the “naked eye”

Colloid:is a homogeneous mixture in which substances can be seen under a microscopic instrument

  • Are homogenous mixtures that are impossible to see its different parts even with a microscope

Ex: Sugar and water→ mix together, looks like you just have water

  • The substance that seems to “disappear” into the other is called: the solute
  • The substance into which the “solute” dissolves is called: the solvent
  • Examples of solution in the body:

Saliva, sweat, tears, urine etc..

They all share a common solvent→ water!!!

properties of solutions
Properties of Solutions
  • There are 2 properties of solutions:
  • Concentration→ How much solute is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent.

Ex: Making “Kool-Aid” depends on how much powder (solute) you mix with the water (solvent)

  • Formula for Concentration

C = M


C = concentration (g/L)

M = mass of solute (g)

V = volume of the solution (L)

  • This can be shown in many different forms…
  • g/L : number of grams of solute in 1 litre of solution
  • % V/V : number of milliliters of solute in 100ml of solution


1. Bottle of water contains 45g of calcium per litre of water.

Can be expressed like this: 0.045g/L

  • 45g of calcium: SOLUTE
  • Water: SOLVENT

2. Bottle of vinegar with concentration of 5% v/v

  • This means it contains 5ml of acetic acid for 100ml of vinegar solution.
  • Let’s try these simple problems….

1. 2L of a salt water solution containing 5 g of salt. What is the concentration of the solution?





C= 5g = 2.5g

2L 1L

Ans: The concentration of the solution is 2.5g/L


2. What mass of sugar do you need to make 300ml of a 5g/L sugar solution?

Ans: You need to convert the 300ml into Litres first!!!!

* You must divide the milliliters by 1000.


300ml  1000 = 0.3L



5g/L = mass of solute


Cross multiply: 5g/L x 0.3L = 1.50g

Ans: You will need 1.50g of sugar.


3. What mass of solute do you need to make 50ml of a 20g/L solution?


Change 50ml to litres… 50ml  1000 = 0.05L

C= M


20g/L = mass of solute



Cross multiply: 20g/L x 0.05L = 1g

Ans: 1g of solute is needed


How do you know if a solution is more concentrated than the other?

  • By how dark the solution is when comparing it to another…
  • This is an observation made by the naked eye.
  • When comparing, the darker the solution, the more concentrated…

Also, by calculating the concentration…

Concentration with a bigger number is always

The stronger solution…

Ex: 0.1g/L, 10g/L, 100g/L

 

Least Most

Concentrated concentrated


What is DILUTION?

  • This involves decreasing the concentration of a solution by adding moreSOLVENT!!!

How does it change the concentration of a solution?

  • Let’s look at a solution with a concentration of 1g/L

How will the concentration change if we add 3L of water?

  • After the dilution, the quantity of solutedoes not change.
  • There is still 1g of solute in the solution !
  • But the quantity of solution has changed, there is now 4L instead of 1L!!!
  • We can write this out like this…
  • The concentration is now 1g/4L!!!
  • This means there is 1g of solute for every 4L of solution…


Divide 1g into 4L = 0.25g/L

  • So, you diluted a 1g/L solution with 3L of water to make a 0.25g/L solution!!!!
  • Let’s us a formula for this!!!!

We already know….

C=M concentration= mass of solute

V volume of solution

The mass always stays the same in a dilution!!!So, we can take it out of the equation!

And use this….


C₁ V₁ =C₂ V₂

C₁ V₁ = The initial solution

C₂ V₂ = The final solution

C₁= Initial concentration (g/L)

V₁= initial volume (L)

C₂ = Final concentration (g/L)

V₂ = Final volume (L)

  • Let’s look at our example mathematically…

C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂ (plug in what you know)

C₁ = 1g/L

V₁= 1L

C₂ = ?

V₂ = 4L Do the calculations…


C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂

(1)x(1) = (C₂)x(4)

1 = (C₂)4

4 4

C₂ = 0.25g/L

There’s your answer!!!!