Vaccines. Vaccines. Our defense mechanism→ Production of white blood cells and antibodies What does it mean to have immunity? It is the capacity to resist a disease that we have been exposed to by being able to fight off the infectious agent that causes the disease. White Blood Cells.
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Production of white blood cells and antibodies
2. Produce antibodies→ neutralize infectious agent and antigens they produce
Salt+ pepper mix
Blizzard at DQ
Colloid:is a homogeneous mixture in which substances can be seen under a microscopic instrument
Ex: Sugar and water→ mix together, looks like you just have water
Saliva, sweat, tears, urine etc..
They all share a common solvent→ water!!!
Ex: Making “Kool-Aid” depends on how much powder (solute) you mix with the water (solvent)
C = M
C = concentration (g/L)
M = mass of solute (g)
V = volume of the solution (L)
1. Bottle of water contains 45g of calcium per litre of water.
Can be expressed like this: 0.045g/L
2. Bottle of vinegar with concentration of 5% v/v
1. 2L of a salt water solution containing 5 g of salt. What is the concentration of the solution?
C= 5g = 2.5g
Ans: The concentration of the solution is 2.5g/L
2. What mass of sugar do you need to make 300ml of a 5g/L sugar solution?
Ans: You need to convert the 300ml into Litres first!!!!
* You must divide the milliliters by 1000.
300ml 1000 = 0.3L
5g/L = mass of solute
Cross multiply: 5g/L x 0.3L = 1.50g
Ans: You will need 1.50g of sugar.
3. What mass of solute do you need to make 50ml of a 20g/L solution?
Change 50ml to litres… 50ml 1000 = 0.05L
20g/L = mass of solute
Cross multiply: 20g/L x 0.05L = 1g
Ans: 1g of solute is needed
How do you know if a solution is more concentrated than the other?
Also, by calculating the concentration…
Concentration with a bigger number is always
The stronger solution…
Ex: 0.1g/L, 10g/L, 100g/L
What is DILUTION?
How does it change the concentration of a solution?
How will the concentration change if we add 3L of water?
Divide 1g into 4L = 0.25g/L
We already know….
C=M concentration= mass of solute
V volume of solution
The mass always stays the same in a dilution!!!So, we can take it out of the equation!
And use this….
C₁ V₁ =C₂ V₂
C₁ V₁ = The initial solution
C₂ V₂ = The final solution
C₁= Initial concentration (g/L)
V₁= initial volume (L)
C₂ = Final concentration (g/L)
V₂ = Final volume (L)
C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂ (plug in what you know)
C₁ = 1g/L
C₂ = ?
V₂ = 4L Do the calculations…
C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂
(1)x(1) = (C₂)x(4)
1 = (C₂)4
C₂ = 0.25g/L
There’s your answer!!!!