Vaccines. Vaccines. Our defense mechanism→ Production of white blood cells and antibodies What does it mean to have immunity? It is the capacity to resist a disease that we have been exposed to by being able to fight off the infectious agent that causes the disease. White Blood Cells.
Production of white blood cells and antibodies
2. Produce antibodies→ neutralize infectious agent and antigens they produce
Salt+ pepper mix
Blizzard at DQ
Colloid:is a homogeneous mixture in which substances can be seen under a microscopic instrument
Ex: Sugar and water→ mix together, looks like you just have water
Saliva, sweat, tears, urine etc..
They all share a common solvent→ water!!!
Ex: Making “Kool-Aid” depends on how much powder (solute) you mix with the water (solvent)
C = M
C = concentration (g/L)
M = mass of solute (g)
V = volume of the solution (L)
1. Bottle of water contains 45g of calcium per litre of water.
Can be expressed like this: 0.045g/L
2. Bottle of vinegar with concentration of 5% v/v
1. 2L of a salt water solution containing 5 g of salt. What is the concentration of the solution?
C= 5g = 2.5g
Ans: The concentration of the solution is 2.5g/L
2. What mass of sugar do you need to make 300ml of a 5g/L sugar solution?
Ans: You need to convert the 300ml into Litres first!!!!
* You must divide the milliliters by 1000.
300ml 1000 = 0.3L
5g/L = mass of solute
Cross multiply: 5g/L x 0.3L = 1.50g
Ans: You will need 1.50g of sugar.
3. What mass of solute do you need to make 50ml of a 20g/L solution?
Change 50ml to litres… 50ml 1000 = 0.05L
20g/L = mass of solute
Cross multiply: 20g/L x 0.05L = 1g
Ans: 1g of solute is needed
How do you know if a solution is more concentrated than the other?
Also, by calculating the concentration…
Concentration with a bigger number is always
The stronger solution…
Ex: 0.1g/L, 10g/L, 100g/L
What is DILUTION?
How does it change the concentration of a solution?
How will the concentration change if we add 3L of water?
Divide 1g into 4L = 0.25g/L
We already know….
C=M concentration= mass of solute
V volume of solution
The mass always stays the same in a dilution!!!So, we can take it out of the equation!
And use this….
C₁ V₁ =C₂ V₂
C₁ V₁ = The initial solution
C₂ V₂ = The final solution
C₁= Initial concentration (g/L)
V₁= initial volume (L)
C₂ = Final concentration (g/L)
V₂ = Final volume (L)
C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂ (plug in what you know)
C₁ = 1g/L
C₂ = ?
V₂ = 4L Do the calculations…
C₁ V₁ = C₂ V₂
(1)x(1) = (C₂)x(4)
1 = (C₂)4
C₂ = 0.25g/L
There’s your answer!!!!