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Types of Vaccines II. Types of Vaccines III. The Perfect Vaccine. 100% effective Oral dosage form No adverse effects Highly immunogenic life-long immunity from a single dose no boosters required Cheap Stable at room temperature no cold chain required. DT DTaP DTaP-HepB-IPV

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types of vaccines ii
Types of Vaccines II

KLVadheim Lecture 2

types of vaccines iii
Types of Vaccines III

KLVadheim Lecture 2

the perfect vaccine
The Perfect Vaccine
  • 100% effective
  • Oral dosage form
  • No adverse effects
  • Highly immunogenic
    • life-long immunity from a single dose
    • no boosters required
  • Cheap
  • Stable at room temperature
    • no cold chain required

KLVadheim Lecture 2

combination vaccines








Combination vaccines

KLVadheim Lecture 2

the bare minimum immunology

The Bare Minimum Immunology

MedCh 401 Spring 2006

Lecture 2

KLVadheim Lecture 2

  • The science of differentiating self from non-self
  • Defense against invaders
    • Bacterial
    • Viral
    • Fungal
    • Parasitic
    • Particulate (e.g., slivers)

KLVadheim Lecture 2

immune system characteristics
Immune system characteristics
  • Specificity
  • Memory
  • Tolerance

KLVadheim Lecture 2

blood cells
Blood cells
  • RBCs - carry oxygen
  • WBCs - immune cells
    • lymphocytes
    • Natural Killer cells
    • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)
    • macrophages

KLVadheim Lecture 2

the immune system is
The immune system is...
  • General and specific
  • Innate (natural) and acquired (adaptive)
  • Active and passive
    • Natural and artificial
  • Cell-mediated and humoral
  • Primary and secondary immune responses

KLVadheim Lecture 2

some general immune responses
Some General Immune Responses
  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Inflammation
  • Localized erythema

KLVadheim Lecture 2

essential concepts
Essential Concepts
  • Active
    • Produced by one’s own immune system, e.g., development and recovery from disease
    • More permanent (years)
  • Passive
    • Produced by other humans or animals and infused, injected, ingested or absorbed into recipient
    • Transient (weeks to months)

KLVadheim Lecture 2

active immunity

Host produces antibodies in response to infection

Host develops protective response to live viral vaccine


Host produces protective immune response to killed cells, detoxified toxins, etc.

Active Immunity

KLVadheim Lecture 2

passive immunity

Placental transfer of maternal antibodies (IgG)

Transfer of maternal antibodies via nursing (IgA)


injection of immune serum from person who has recovered from disease

transfusion of hyperimmune serum from animal

Passive Immunity

KLVadheim Lecture 2


KLVadheim Lecture 2

innate immunity
Innate immunity
  • Surface barriers
    • Skin
    • Ciliary action of respiratory epithelia
    • Mucus in respiratory and urogenital tracts
    • Acid pH of skin secretions
    • Lysozyme in tears, saliva, perspiration
    • Extreme acidity of stomach

KLVadheim Lecture 2

innate immunity ii
Innate immunity II
  • Normal flora
    • Staphylococcus aureus on skin
    • E. coli in gut
    • Candida in vaginal tract
    • Corynebacteria diphtheriae in laryngeal passage

KLVadheim Lecture 2

innate immunity iii
Innate Immunity III
  • Macrophages
    • Kupffer cells - liver
    • microglia - CNS
    • mesoangial cells - kidney
    • osteoclasts - bone
  • Natural killer cells
  • PMNs (and other WBCs)

KLVadheim Lecture 2

innate immunity iv
Innate Immunity IV
  • Complement system
    • Enzyme cascade
    • Not antigen-specific
    • Enhances phagocytosis
    • Stimulates inflammation, increasing capillary permeability to increase plasma and complement flow to injury
    • Can directly lyse cells

KLVadheim Lecture 2

innate immunity v
Innate Immunity V
  • Dendritic cells
    • Langerhans cells
    • Interstitial dendritic cells
    • Interdigitating dendritic cells
    • Circulating dendritic cells

KLVadheim Lecture 2

acquired immunity i
Acquired Immunity I
  • Cell-mediated - these are lymphocytes
    • T cells
      • TH2 (Helper) CD4+ - activate T and B cells
      • TH1 (DTH) - role in allergies
      • TC (Cytotoxic) CD8+, aka CTLs - kill cells with foreign Ag on the surface
      • Memory
    • B cells
      • Plasma cells (produce antibodies)
      • Memory B cells

KLVadheim Lecture 2

acquired immunity ii
Acquired immunity II
  • Active
    • Develop and recover from disease
  • Passive
    • Transplacental maternal antibodies (IgG)
    • Maternal antibodies in human milk (IgA)

KLVadheim Lecture 2


KLVadheim Lecture 2

variability of the immune response
Variability of the immune response
  • Avidity (binding affinity)
    • low for recent infections
    • high for secondary immune responses
  • Specificity
    • low for primary immune responses
    • high for secondary immune responses

KLVadheim Lecture 2

  • IgA - primary antibody in secretions; half-life ~5 days
  • IgM - primary antibody response; half-life 5-10 days
  • IgG - secondary antibody response; half-life 21-24 days
  • IgD - found on B cell surfaces
  • IgE - bound to mast cells; amplifies immune response

KLVadheim Lecture 2

antibody functions
Antibody functions
  • Opsonization - coating Ag with Ab enhances phagocytosis
  • Steric hindrance - bind to surfaces of microorganisms and prevent attachment to cells
  • Toxin neutralization
  • Agglutination and precipitation - bind to surface of microbes and precipitate them; reduces number of infectious units and enhances phagocytosis

KLVadheim Lecture 2

antibody functions ii
Antibody functions II
  • Complement activation
    • induces inflammatory response
    • attracts phagocytes to site of infection
    • opsonizes cells with foreign antigens
    • lyses some bacteria and viruses
  • Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity - IgG enables Natural Killer cells to recognize and kill opsonized target cells

KLVadheim Lecture 2

when good things go bad
When good things go bad...
  • Allergies
    • Hay fever
    • Delayed-type hypersensitivity
    • Anaphylaxis
  • Autoimmunity
    • MS (CNS)
    • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS; a-motor neurons of spinal cord)
    • Primary biliary cirrhosis (liver)

KLVadheim Lecture 2

terms to know





Antigen-presenting cells




T and B Memory cells

Natural v. artificial responses

Active v. Passive responses

B, T and Plasma cells


Terms to Know

KLVadheim Lecture 2