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Fitness Concepts. Physical Activity. How physically active are you? Physical activity: any movement that requires your large muscle groups to work Includes actions such as walking briskly around the mall or doing household chores

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physical activity
Physical Activity
  • How physically active are you?
  • Physical activity: any movement that requires your large muscle groups to work
    • Includes actions such as walking briskly around the mall or doing household chores
    • Should spend 45-60 minutes or more each day performing some form of physical activity
why exercise
Why Exercise?
  • Physical Benefits
    • Can pump more blood with less effort, reduces blood pressure and lowers cholesterol levels
    • Helps develop muscles
    • Weight Maintenance-
      • Increases metabolic rate: the amount of energy your body uses when you are at rest
why exercise1
Why Exercise?
  • Mental Benefits
    • Improves mood
      • Endorphins are released
      • Endorphins: feel good hormones that reduce the sensation of pain
    • Cope better with stress and anxiety
    • Increases your energy level
  • Studies show that regular physical activity also improves academic achievement
health related fitness
Health Related Fitness
  • Health Related Fitness: A portion of physical fitness which focuses on improving health and well being
  • Include 5 components
    • Cardiovascular Endurance
    • Muscular Strength
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body Composition
cardiovascular endurance
Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Physical activity that can be performed for extended periods and uses major muscle groups.
    • Strengthens the heart
    • Improves the body's ability to deliver oxygen to the muscles.
  • Examples: running, swimming, bicycling, dancing, brisk walking or rowing
muscular strength
Muscular Strength
  • The ability of a muscle to produce force
  • Done with a heavier weight
  • Can include dumbbells, barbells, resistance bands, machines, cables, medicine balls or your own body
  • Benefits
    • Increases strength
    • Increases muscle size
  • Example: the amount of weight you can lift, 2-3 reps
muscular endurance
Muscular Endurance
  • The ability of your muscles to work for extended time
  • Requires repeated actions over an extended period of time such as raking leaves, rowing or walking
  • Done with a much lighter weight
  • Benefits
    • Improve posture and prevent injury
    • Example: how long you can hold a barbell or how many time you can lift it
  • The ability to move a joint through it’s complete range of motion
  • Benefits
    • Can improve performance
    • Reduce risk of injury
    • Make your daily activities easier and more enjoyable
types of stretches
Types of Stretches
  • 2 Main Types of Stretches
    • Static Stretching: muscle to be stretching is slowly put into position
    • Dynamic Stretching: stretching in motion. Most effective stretching at reducing muscle stiffness
      • Example: arm circles, butt kicks, knee hug, walking lunges
body composition
Body Composition

Used to describe the percentages of fat, bone and muscle in the body

types of physical activity
Types of Physical Activity
  • Aerobic Exercise:
    • The word aerobic means with oxygen, aerobic activities require continuous oxygen to the large muscle groups.
    • Increase heart rate and use large muscles in a steady and continuous motion
    • Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart enabling a person to carry more blood throughout the body with one pump than it did before.
    • Examples: swimming, walking, or jogging to team sports such as basketball and soccer
types of physical activity1
Types of Physical Activity
  • Anaerobic Exercise:
    • The word anaerobic means without oxygen, and does not require continuous oxygen to the muscles.
    • Anaerobic are done at high intensity levels for short periods of time.
    • Since no oxygen is getting to your muscles and it’s at such a high intensity frequent rests are needed to catch your breath!
    • Examples:
sport related fitness
Sport Related Fitness
  • The portion of physical fitness that focuses on optimizing athletic performance
  • Includes all components of health related fitness but also includes 6 other components
    • Speed, reaction time, agility, balance, coordination, power

The ability to move a body part quickly either from point A to point B but also related to body parts

Example: in golf, the speed of your arms and upper body in creating the swing

reaction time
Reaction Time

How quickly your brain can respond to a stimulus and initiate a response

Example: responding to a gun at the start of a race, goalkeeper saving a penalty


Being able to change direction and the speed at which you are traveling, quickly and efficiently


The ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or moving


The ability to use the body parts and senses together to produce smooth efficient movements.


Product of strength and speed. When we perform a task as quickly and as forcefully as we can, the result is powerful

setting goals for lifelong fitness
Setting Goals for Lifelong Fitness
  • Lifelong Fitness: the ability to stay healthy and fit as you age
  • To plan a successful fitness program you should
    • Define both short-term and long-term goals
    • Develop your program
    • Monitor your progress
lifelong fitness
Lifelong Fitness

What are some activities that you can start now and continue to enjoy lifelong?

basics of a physical activity program
Basics of a Physical Activity Program
  • All effective fitness programs are based on these three principles
  • Overload: working the body harder than it is normally worked.
    • Achieved by increasing the reps or by doing more sets of an exercise
  • Progression: increasing frequency, intensity and/or duration of an activity
  • Specificity:exercise to improve particular area of fitness
    • If you want to improve cardiovascular endurance make sure you are doing activities to improve that component
the fitt principle
The FITT Principle
  • The success of your fitness plan depends on four factors:
    • How often you exercise
    • How hard you exercise
    • How long you exercise
    • The types of exercises you choose
  • These factors make up the FITT Principle which stands for
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Time
    • Type
  • You can use the FITT Principle to improve any of the components of fitness
  • Frequency:
    • How often are you being physically fit
    • To become or stay physically fit, you should exercise at least 3 -5 times a week.

The only way to improve your physical fitness is to make your body do more than it normally does

there must be a balance between finding enough intensity to overload the body (so it can adapt) but not so much that it causes overtraining.

Using the Target Heart Rate Zone so you know you are at the right intensity level


The amount of time you spend exercising affects your level of fitness

Cardio should be done between 20-30 minutes in your target heart rate zone

Resistance training should be done between 20-30 minutes. Total body can take longer than a split routine


The types of activities you choose are also important for your success.

Make sure that your exercise choices correspond to your goals and interests

To prevent boredom and overuse injuries, you should participate in a wide variety of activities- cross training

monitor your progress
Monitor Your Progress
  • Track your overall progress using a chart
  • With most exercise programs, you will begin to notice significant changes within 12 weeks
    • Might sleep better, look better and feel more alert
    • Might also notice that you have gained muscle strength or lost weight
  • Monitoring weight alone is not a good idea- muscle weighs more than fat
  • One good indicator of improved fitness is a drop in your resting heart rate
    • A resting heart rate that is below 72 beats per minute usually indicates a good level of fitness
alter your fitness plan
Alter Your Fitness Plan
  • As your fitness improves, your workouts may become too easy.
    • Sign that your body has adjusted to your fitness routine
    • Slightly increase intensity or time of your workout
  • No matter what your fitness goals are, you need to combine your exercise program with healthy eating habits
phases of exercise
Phases Of Exercise
  • Warming up and Stretching
    • 5-10 min. period of mild exercise that prepares your body
    • Body temp. rises, heart rate speeds up and muscles become more flexible
  • The Workout
    • When you perform an activity at its peak level
    • Your workout should follow the FITT principle
    • Cardio and muscular training or do cardio one day and muscular training another day
  • Cooling Down and Stretching
    • Mild exercise performed after a workout
    • 5-10 min
    • Body and heart rate return slowly to their resting states