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Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e. Section V: Concept 13 Body Composition. Possessing an optimal amount of body fat contributes to health and wellness. All rights reserved. Understanding & Interpreting Body Composition Measures.

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presentation package for concepts of physical fitness 14e

Presentation Package for Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Section V: Concept 13

Body Composition

Possessing an optimal amount of body fat contributes to health and wellness.

All rights reserved

understanding interpreting body composition measures
Understanding & Interpreting Body Composition Measures
  • Component of health-related fitness & a component of metabolic fitness.
  • Standards have been established for healthy levels of body fatness (see next slide)
  • Health standards have been established for the Body Mass Index.
  • Assessing body weight too frequently can result in making false assumptions about body composition changes.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

methods used to assess body composition
Methods Used to Assess Body Composition
  • DXA
  • Underwater Weighing
  • Bod Pod
  • Skinfold technique
  • Other

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

dual energy absorptiometry dxa
Dual-energy Absorptiometry(DXA)
  • “Gold Standard” measure of body composition.
  • Provides whole body measurements of body fatness as well as amounts stored in different parts of the body.
  • Highly accurate measure of body composition for research and a criterion measure that has been used to validate other, more practical measures of body composition.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

underwater weighing

Click for more info

Underwater Weighing
  • A person is weighed in air and under water, and the difference in weight is used to assess the levels of body fatness.
  • Body fat provides more buoyancy, so a fatter person weighs less (on a relative basis) than a lean person.

Web13-3 for info on underwater weighing

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

bod pod
Bod Pod
  • Uses the same principles as underwater weighing, but relies on air displacement to assess body composition.
  • Evidence suggests that it provides an acceptable alternative to underwater weighing and is particularly useful for special populations (obese older people and the physically challenged).

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

skinfold technique
Skinfold Technique

Layers of subcutaneous fat are measured at different sites of body

to estimate total body fat levels

Cross sectional view

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

benefits of skinfold technique
Benefits of Skinfold Technique
  • Skinfold measurements are the preferred, practical method of assessing body fatness.
  • Fairly accurate
  • Easy to perform
  • Inexpensive

Lab 13a info

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

common skinfold sites
Common Skinfold Sites

7 site procedure

Chest

Axilla

Tricep

Subscapular

Abdomen

Supraillium

Thigh

Jackson and Pollack

Males Female

Chest Triceps

Abdomen Supraillium

Thigh Thigh

Alternative Sites

(Males & Females)

Tricep

Abdomen

Calf

Validation statistics on 3 site test: - r = .97 with 7 site procedure

- R2 = .80 with underwater weighing

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

Web13-04

research quality skinfold calipers
Research Quality Skinfold Calipers

Harpenden Calipers

Lange Calipers

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

other body composition assessments
Other Body Composition Assessments
  • Bioelectrical Impedance
  • Infra-Red Spectroscopy
  • Ultrasound
  • Imaging Techniques

Click to seemore info on all techniques

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

anthropometric measurements
Anthropometric Measurements

Lab 13binfo

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR)
  • Circumference measures

More info

More info

More info

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

body composition assessment implications of results
Body Composition AssessmentImplications of Results
  • Values are estimates (+/- 2-3% at best)
  • Values are personal and confidential

Proper uses of results:

- Serve as baseline data for repeated testing

- Provide motivation for goal setting

- Provide awareness about health risks

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

health risks associated with being overweight
Health Risks Associated with Being Overweight
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Hypertension
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Diabetes
  • Premature death
  • Physical fitness provides protection from the health risks of obesity.

There are also health risks associated with being too thin!

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

regional fat deposition

Click for more info on fatdeposition

Male (apple)

Female (pear)

Higher health risk

Lower health risk

Regional Fat Deposition
  • Abdominal body fat poses greater health risks than fat stored in other areas
  • Males store more fat centrally and have increased health risks associated with body fatness

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

health risks associated with excessively low body fatness
Health Risks Associated withExcessively Low Body Fatness
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia
  • Anorexia Athletica
  • Female Athlete Triad
  • Muscle Dysmorphia (males)
  • Fear of Obesity

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

the origin of fatness
The Origin of Fatness

Lab 13c info

  • Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both genetics and the environment.
  • Body weight is regulated and maintained through complex regulatory processes.
    • Set-point
  • Fatness early in life leads to adult fatness.
  • Changes in basal metabolic rate can be the cause of obesity.
  • “Creeping Obesity” (see next slide)

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

relationship between pa body composition
Relationship Between PA & Body Composition
  • Combination of regularPAanddietaryrestriction is the mosteffectivemeans of losingbodyfat.
  • PA that can be sustained for relatively long periods is considered the most effective for losing body fat.
  • Strength training can be effective in maintaining a desirable body composition.
  • Regular PA is critical for building and maintaining bone health.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

target zone body fat reduction table 3 p 285
PhysicalActivity

Daily moderate PA; 3-6 days/wk vigorous PA

Slow, low-intensity that results in ≤1-2 lbs/week of fat loss

30-60 minutes

Diet

Consistently and daily

Modest caloric restriction

Moderate meals

Target Zone - Body Fat ReductionTable 3, p. 285

F I T

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

slide22

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 1995, 2005

(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)

1995

1990

2005

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

web links
Web Links
  • Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Interactive Web Page

http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

summary
Summary
  • Obesity is prevalent in society.
  • Need to find ways to maintain optimal body composition.
  • Use assessments to determine body composition and make the necessary healthy changes to physical activity and diet.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

web resources
Web Resources

Online Learning Center

“On the Web” pages for Concept

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

supplemental graphics

Supplemental Graphics

Lab Information

Detail on BMI calculations

Graphics on Obesity Trends

lab 13a information evaluating body composition skinfolds
Lab 13a InformationEvaluating Body Composition - Skinfolds
  • The purpose of this lab is to evaluate body composition with the skinfold assessment.
  • Comparisons will be made between different procedures and testers to learn about the accuracy of the tests.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 13a information skinfold technique
Lab 13a InformationSkinfold Technique

Return to presentation

  • Measurement Technique:
    • Mark site with marker
    • Pinch fold above and below mark with left and right hand
    • Measure fold with caliper using the right hand
  • Scoring Procedure:
    • Sum skinfolds from the 3 sites
    • Look up percent body fat valuefrom chart in the book

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 13b information evaluating body composition height weight and circumference measures
Lab 13b InformationEvaluating Body Composition – Height, Weight, and Circumference Measures
  • The purpose of this lab is to evaluate body composition with some anthropometric assessments
    • Height/Weight
    • Body Mass Index
    • Waist to Hip Ratio

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 13b information bmi measurement technique
Lab 13b InformationBMI Measurement Technique

Return to presentation

  • Convert weight to kilograms (2.2 kg/lb.)
  • Convert height to meters (.0254 m/in)
  • Square the height in meters
  • Divide the squared height value into the weight value

BMI = Wt (kg) / Ht2 (m)

See Web13-06 for BMI calculators

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 13b information whr measurement technique
Lab 13b InformationWHR Measurement Technique

Return to presentation

  • Waist:Measure at the "natural waist" (smallest circumference) or at the level of the umbilicus
  • Hip:Measure at the maximum circumference of the buttocks

Divide the hip measurement into the waist measurement to obtain the WHR

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

sample bmi values

HT (in.) WT (lb.) BMI

72 150 21

72 180 25

72 190 26

72 200 28

Sample BMI Values

Return to presentation

This chart reveals how BMI values change for a hypothetical 6 foot tall person of different body weights

See Web13-06 for BMI calculators

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

definitions of overweight based on bmi values
Definitions of Overweight(Based on BMI values)

Return to presentation

  • BMI accounts for differences in frame size better than height weight tables. BMI = Wt (kg) / Ht2 (m)

Standards:

    • Overweight: > 25
    • Obesity: > 30
    • Severe obesity > 40

Problem: BMI does not take muscles mass into account

Web13-1 for moreinformation on standards

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

lab 13c information determining your daily energy expenditure
Lab 13c InformationDetermining Your Daily Energy Expenditure

Return to presentation

  • Estimate your basal metabolism.
  • First determine the number of minutes you sleep.
  • Monitor your activity expenditure for 1 day. Record the number of 5-, 15-, and 30-minute blocks of time you perform each of the different types of physical activities (e.g., if an activity lasted 20 minutes, you would use one 15-minute block and one 5-minute block). Be sure to distinguish between moderate (Mod) and vigorous (Vig) intensity in your logging.
  • Discuss your daily caloric expenditure. In addition, comment on whether you think you should modify your daily caloric expenditure for any reason.

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

regional fat deposition visceral fat
Regional Fat DepositionVisceral Fat
  • Visceral body fat poses greater health risks because this fat is more labile and has greater access to the circulation.
  • The accumulation of visceral body fat is typical of the android (male) fat pattern
    • males: visceral accounts for 10-35% of total fat
    • females: visceral accounts for 8-13%of total fat

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

abdominal body fat relationships with chd risks
Abdominal Body FatRelationships with CHD Risks
  • Abdominal obesity predicts CHD risk independent of BMI, smoking, cholesterol and hypertension.(Kannel et al., J. Clin Epid., 44, 183-190, 1991).
  • Abdominal obesity predicts CHD risk independent of total body fatness.(Larsson et al. ,Appetite, 13, 37-44, 1989).
  • Abdominal obesity statisticallly accounts for difference in CHD rates between men and women.(Larsson et al., Am. J. Epi., 135: 266-273, 1992).

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

abdominal body fat relationships with other risk factors
Abdominal Body FatRelationships with other risk factors
  • Abdominal obesity is strongly influenced by genetics - similar gain among twins (r=.72). (Bouchard, NEJM, 322, 1477-1482, 1990).
  • Abdominal obesity is greater in smokers than non-smokers due to the presence of androgens (Barrett-Conner, Ann. Int. Med. 111, 783-787, 1989).
  • Abdominal body fat is preferentially lost during a physical activity program(Kohrt, J. Gerontology, 47: M99-M105, 1992)

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

waist to hip ratio whr
Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR)

Return to presentation

  • Waist to Hip Ratio is an effective way to examine regional fat distribution.

HEALTH RISK

MEN

WOMEN

High Risk

> 1.0

> .85

Moderate Risk

.90 -1.0

.80-.85

Low Risk

< .90

< .80

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

underwater weighing measurement issues
Underwater WeighingMeasurement issues

Return to presentation

  • Based on body density calculations
    • Density of lean tissue = 1.1 g/cc
    • Density of fat tissue = .9 g/cc
  • Sources of error
    • Residual lung volume
    • Bone density varies by age, ethnicity and activity level
  • General conclusions
    • Gold standard measure (1-2% error)
    • Impractical for most applications

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

bioelectric impedance measurement issues
Bioelectric Impedance(Measurement Issues)

Return to presentation

  • Based on resistance to current flow
    • Lean tissue has more water - less resistance
    • Fat tissue has less water - more resistance
  • Sources of error
    • Temperature
    • Hydration status
  • General conclusions
    • Overestimates lean / underestimates obese
    • Practical, but expensive, measure for general population

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

infrared spectroscopy measurement issues
Infrared Spectroscopy(Measurement Issues)

Return to presentation

  • Based on differential absorbance rates
    • Lean tissue has a different energy absorption and reflectance pattern than fat tissue
  • Sources of error
    • Validity of absorbance readings is questionable!
  • General findings
    • NOT a valid measure!

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

ultrasound measurement issues
Ultrasound(Measurement Issues)

Return to presentation

  • Based on reflection of sound
    • Fat content increases the time is required for sound to reflect off of bone and muscle.
  • Sources of error
    • Representative sites for measurement
    • Measurement error
  • General conclusions
    • Highly accurate measure of body fat - especially for obese
    • Expensive and not practical for most applications

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

imaging techniques measurement issues
Imaging Techniques(Measurement Issues)

Return to presentation

  • Based on imaging of body tissues
    • Based on cross sectional area measures calculated at different levels of the body
  • Sources of error
    • Representative sites for measurement
    • Measurement error
  • General conclusions
    • Very precise measure of body composition
    • Expensive and not practical measure for most uses

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e

circumferences measurement technique
Circumferences(Measurement Technique)

Return to presentation

  • Based on circumference measures
    • sample prediction equation:% fat = - 47.372 + (.579 x abdomen) + (.252 x hip) + (.214 x iliac) + (.356 x BW)
  • Sources of error
    • Location of sites
    • Inability to distinguish fat and muscle
  • General conclusions
    • Provides reasonable estimate of body fat
    • Not as accurate as skinfold and takes same time

Concepts of Physical Fitness 14e