Post-Cold War USAF Operations. Overview. Background / Lessons Learned Operations Provide Comfort / Northern Watch Operation Southern Watch Operations Provide Relief / Restore Hope Operation Deny Flight. The Crisis in Iraq.
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Overview • Background / Lessons Learned • Operations Provide Comfort / Northern Watch • Operation Southern Watch • Operations Provide Relief / Restore Hope • Operation Deny Flight
The Crisis in Iraq • UN Security Council established a “no-fly zone” over northern Iraq to protect the Kurdish people from attacks by Saddam Hussein • Operation Provide Comfort began on 5 Apr 91 as a humanitarian relief effort to deliver food, clothing, and supplies to Iraq’s Kurdish refugees • C-130s began airdropping supplies on 7 Apr 91 • Lasted approximately eight years and was then replaced by Operation Northern Watch
The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - ONW • The need to avoid “Fratricide” • The limitations of airdrops • Host-country tensions • The need for alternate bases • Lack of an “exit strategy”
The Crisis in Iraq • Operation Southern Watch (OSW) is a Combined Task Force enforcing the “no-fly zone” below the 33th parallel in southern Iraq • Not an aggression against Iraq – executed as a self-defense measure • Coalition partners include the US, UK, France, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait • More than 850 Iraqi SAM and AAA fire directed at coalition aircraft • Iraq has violated the “no-fly zone” more than 160 times • More than 150,000 USAF sorties by 1998
“What we’ve effectively done since 1992 is conduct an air occupation of a country…” Gen Fogleman, Jul 1995
The Crisis in IraqLessons Learned - OSW • Became a test for USAF AEF concept in Oct 1995 • Quality of life changes needed due to high “Ops-Tempo” • Reorganized Security Forces
The Crisis in Somalia • In-mid 1992, drought and civil war devastated Somalia • Food supplies became a weapon of war • Operation Provide Relief began on 22 Aug 1992 by the US to deliver food to Somali refugees • Military and civilian aircraft used • Over 2,000 sorties, carrying 48,162 metric tons of food
The Crisis in Somalia • Although a humanitarian effort: • 44 American soldiers lost their lives • 175 were injured or wounded • Danger of failure due to warlord interference • Operation Restore Hope • Coalition peacekeeping operation from 9 Dec 92 – 4 May 93 • First test of Rapid Global Mobility from the CONUS
The Crisis in SomaliaLessons Learned • First large scale test of newly formed AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) • Difficulties evolved in the planning, coordinating and managing of the operation • Austere infrastructure of Somalia added to the lack of adequate bases for strategic airlift aircraft
The Crisis in Bosnia • Oct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781, established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina. • Operation Deny Flight • Enforced the no-fly zone • Provided close air support to UN troops • Conducted approved air strikes under a "dual-key" command arrangement with the UN • 28 Feb 94, NATO aircraft shot down four warplanes violating the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina • This was the first military engagement ever undertaken by the Alliance.
The Crisis in Bosnia • NATO objectives • Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on Sarajevo and other safe areas • Withdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from the total exclusion zone around Sarajevo • Complete freedom of movement for U.N. Forces and personnel, and non-government officials • Unrestricted use of Sarajevo airport
The Crisis in Bosnia • NATO missions of Operation Deny Flight • To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce compliance with UN Security Council Resolution 816 • To provide close air support to UN troops on the ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN forces. • To conduct approved air strikes against designated targets threatening the security of the UN-declared safe areas.
The Crisis in Bosnia • Operation Deny Flight lasted from 12 Apr 1993 to 20 Dec 1995 • Almost 100,000 sorties flown • A formal closure ceremony was held in Vicenza, Italy on 21 Dec 1995 • Forces associated with Operation Deny Flight were then transferred to Operation Decisive Endeavor -- as part of the overall NATO operation Joint Endeavor.
The Crisis in BosniaLessons Learned • Lack of doctrine • Tactical aerospace power problems • Bases weren’t large enough to accept the contingency surges • Coalition/Joint problems • Technological problems
Summary • Iraq • Operations Provide Comfort / Northern Watch • Operation Southern Watch • Somalia • Operations Provide Relief / Restore Hope • Bosnia • Operation Deny Flight