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Unit 9: Sub-Saharan Africa

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  1. Unit 9: Sub-Saharan Africa

  2. Political Map of Africa

  3. Physical Map of Africa

  4. African Ecosystems: based on latitude and wind patterns

  5. Physical Characteristics • Equator through middle • Great Rift Valley (divergent plate boundary) • Most of pop. Lives in fertile highlands of the SW • Lake Victoria in SW • Olduvai Gorge • Serengeti Plain • Mt. Kilimanjaro

  6. Horn of Africa • strategic value: value of location to nations planning lg scale military actions • (Includes – Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia)

  7. Sahara Desert • Affects migration • Expanding • Loss of vegetation • Loss of arable land • Less food

  8. The Sahel • Sep. the Sahara from the tropical grasslands • Arab word for “border” or “Shore” • Sahara used to be fertile with rivers (7,000 yrs ago) • Grassland, subsistence farming, overgrazing is an issue. Semi-Arid

  9. Namib Desert • World’s oldest desert – 55 million years old • No surface water • A few dry, ancient riverbeds

  10. Using Natural Resources • Senegal and Niger Rivers provide transportation, irrigation • In Mali, the Niger R. expands into an inland delta--- where ppl can grow rice, cotton & veggies

  11. The Big River • 2nd largest river in Africa is the Congo R (2,900 mi) • Most of Congo R. is located in Dem. Rep. of Congo

  12. Congo River Basin • The basin that feeds the Congo R. system is over 1 mil sq. mi. • At the center is a dense rainforest • Soil has little use for farming

  13. African Population Density

  14. African Religions Map

  15. African Linguistics Map

  16. Reasons for Migration in Africa • Disease • Conflict • famine

  17. Natural Resources • Oil • Natural gas • Gold • Diamonds • Freshwater • Timber • Arable land in the south

  18. African Regions Map

  19. African GDP: most are Primary

  20. North Africa Review Islam Arab Developing Economically Series of recent revolutions leading to democratic change

  21. Sub-Saharan Africa Many languages Variety of religions Varied economic development Not much interaction with North Africa due to Sahara Desert

  22. The Sudan • North – desert, Muslim Arabs • South – clay plains & a lg swamp called “The Sudd”, diff. ethnic groups, practice animalism or Christianity • N & S cont. at war since independence in 1956 • Millions in danger of starvation

  23. Sudan Today • Split: Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan • N. Sudan - Islamic State, republic, current President - Omar Hassan al-Bashir • Market economy but relies on agriculture • Not considered Genocide b/c N. Sudan was not intent on killing one group • George Clooney and the Enough Project • Darfur Discrimination

  24. Religion • The Asante of Ghana practice Ancestor worship – belief in spirits of dead • They also believe in animism – belief that ordinary things are gods (ex. River, sun) • Vary rapid pop. Growth • Muslim/ Christian Split

  25. Trade Links & Empires • Ppl from N. sought ivory, slaves, gold. • Ppl from S. sought salt • Central location of Sahel’s trade route became a bridge b/w Med. Coast and rest of Africa • Chiefs (Ghanas) grew wealthy from taxes on traders. • Ghana – greatest kingdom in the Sahel • Mali – one of the largest empires in the world. • Songhai will later replace Mali, but is destroyed in 1591 by Moroccans

  26. Trade Along the Coastal Countries • European traders came for gold, ivory, palm oil, & slaves • iron ore, peanuts, and cocoa also exported • Large debt – 9 bill per yr just to pay interest

  27. The Sahel Today • The Sahel includes the countries of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, & Ghana • Farming: short rainy season • Use Shifting Agriculture (farming one area until exhaustion then moving to another area) to deal with poor soil • Grow millet, sorghum, and peanuts

  28. The Sahel Today • Herding: • Camels, cattle, & sheep • Baobab & Acacia trees provide forage (green food) for grazing animals • Overgrazing and deforestation damaged the environment • Sahel suffering from increased desertification (increasing the desert) • Causing ppl to flock to refugee (ppl fleeing due to political or economic reasons)camps

  29. Economic Opportunities • Women are key – grass roots: effort begins w/ ppl • Women grow crops in war against hunger & are est. farming co-ops. (subsistence farming) • Women own the food markets

  30. Liberia • Liberia founded in 1822 by freed Amer. Slaves – independence in 1847 • Liberia military coup in 1980 – chaos– 1996 return to democracy

  31. Benin • In Benin – 6 coups (military overthrows) from 1963-1972 • Multiparty Democracy, • Market economy, but very poor

  32. Sierra Leone • 1996 – free elections • Today – anarchy • Failed banking system • No more free elections • Rebels control the diamond mines • Freetown, one of the largest harbors in the world • 31% literacy rate

  33. People of Nigeria • Yoruba – SW • Ibo – SE • Hausa (traders) & Fulani (herders) – N • English – official language (250 total) • Muslim /Christian split • 9 / 36 states adopted Shariah (Islamic Law) Lacks unity among regions • Varying climate

  34. Military Leadership • Govt collapsed with fall of oil prices in 1983– dependence on oil • Turned to World Bank & International Monetary Fund (give loans to developing countries) • 1986 began structural adjustment program suggested by World Bank– proposed how to fix economy, can’t borrow money unless follows guidelines

  35. Nigeria Today • In 1993 Gen. Sani Abacha took over & ended to structural adjustment program and increased the debt • 1st free elections in 1999 • Currently a Federal Republic

  36. Early History • Aksum: 100 CE along the Red Sea • Berlin Conference: divided all of Africa, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European control • Divisions were made with little regard to already established ethnic boundaries

  37. Ethiopia • Kushite civilization about 3500 yrs old • Long droughts have caused famine & starvation • Relies on other countries for aid • Landlocked • Home of Lucy – oldest human skeleton ever found

  38. Eritrea • Used to be part of Ethiopia • Located along Red Sea • Split b/w Christians and Muslims • No official language • Provisional govt due to cont. conflict with Ethiopia

  39. Somalia • Independence in 1960 • 1980s – lg civil war started • 1991 – state of anarchy • Severe drought in 1990s – about 1.5 mill risked starvation • Currently have a democracy ran by Sharia Law

  40. Uganda • Independence in 1962 – dictator, Idi Amin came to power • 300,000 died or disappeared under his rule in 1970s • Led to rebellion by Joseph Kony • 2001 free elections for president • Still problems • Invisible Children

  41. Rwandan Genocide • Ethnocracy (1 ethnic group rules the others) • Genocide: intent on killing a specific group of ppl based on race, religion, ethnicity, etc. • 80% belong to Hutu group • 20% Tutsi • Hutu in power for 35 yrs after overthrowing Tutsi in 1959 – killed 100,000 Tutsi • In 1994 100,000s of Tutsi were murdered in civil war, 2 mill refugees • Currently they share power • “Hotel Rwanda”Hotel Rwanda- One million Voices

  42. Burundi • Tutsi in power but only 14% of pop. • Tutsi control army & use army to control pop. • Thousands have died since independence in 1962 • Violence continues

  43. Tanzania • Great potential wealth • Poor development • Pop. Subjected to Villagization (forced to move into towns to work on collective farms) • After Socialism was abandoned the economy began to repair

  44. Bantu Migrations • Culture who speaks Bantu • Started around 2000 BCE • MASS MIGRATION across Africa • Today 100s of Bantu languages and they helped spread much of African culture

  45. African Slave Trade • Started w/ Portuguese on Sao Tome near Gabon • Africans were both sold and the sellers • Trading posts along coasts • Most slaves from interior

  46. CFA • Many countries of Western & Central Africa belong to a financial community known as the CFA • Use currency called CFA franc (can be exchanged for French franc) • Use of common currency promotes trade & travel • Used in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Central African Republic, etc.

  47. Renewable Resources • Hydroelectricity • Central African Republic lies on a watershed (dividing ridge b/w 2 basins) – 80% of hydroelectricity produced here • In Cote d’Ivoire – 85% of rainforest destroyed since 1940s--- increased global warming