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Unit 9: Sub-Saharan Africa

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Unit 9: Sub-Saharan Africa. Political Map of Africa. Physical Map of Africa. African Ecosystems: based on latitude and wind patterns. Physical Characteristics. Equator through middle Great Rift Valley (divergent plate boundary) Most of pop. Lives in fertile highlands of the SW

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physical characteristics
Physical Characteristics
  • Equator through middle
  • Great Rift Valley (divergent plate boundary)
  • Most of pop. Lives in fertile highlands of the SW
  • Lake Victoria in SW
  • Olduvai Gorge
  • Serengeti Plain
  • Mt. Kilimanjaro
horn of africa
Horn of Africa
  • strategic value: value of location to nations planning lg scale military actions
  • (Includes – Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia)
sahara desert
Sahara Desert
  • Affects migration
  • Expanding
  • Loss of vegetation
  • Loss of arable land
  • Less food
the sahel
The Sahel
  • Sep. the Sahara from the tropical grasslands
  • Arab word for “border” or “Shore”
  • Sahara used to be fertile with rivers (7,000 yrs ago)
  • Grassland, subsistence farming, overgrazing is an issue. Semi-Arid
namib desert
Namib Desert
  • World’s oldest desert – 55 million years old
  • No surface water
  • A few dry, ancient riverbeds
using natural resources
Using Natural Resources
  • Senegal and Niger Rivers provide transportation, irrigation
  • In Mali, the Niger R. expands into an inland delta--- where ppl can grow rice, cotton & veggies
the big river
The Big River
  • 2nd largest river in Africa is the Congo R (2,900 mi)
  • Most of Congo R. is located in Dem. Rep. of Congo
congo river basin
Congo River Basin
  • The basin that feeds the Congo R. system is over 1 mil sq. mi.
  • At the center is a dense rainforest
  • Soil has little use for farming
reasons for migration in africa
Reasons for Migration in Africa
  • Disease
  • Conflict
  • famine
natural resources
Natural Resources
  • Oil
  • Natural gas
  • Gold
  • Diamonds
  • Freshwater
  • Timber
  • Arable land in the south
north africa review
North Africa Review



Developing Economically

Series of recent revolutions leading to democratic change

sub saharan africa
Sub-Saharan Africa

Many languages

Variety of religions

Varied economic development

Not much interaction with North Africa due to Sahara Desert

the sudan
The Sudan
  • North – desert, Muslim Arabs
  • South – clay plains & a lg swamp called “The Sudd”, diff. ethnic groups, practice animalism or Christianity
  • N & S cont. at war since independence in 1956
  • Millions in danger of starvation
sudan today
Sudan Today
  • Split: Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan
  • N. Sudan - Islamic State, republic, current President - Omar Hassan al-Bashir
  • Market economy but relies on agriculture
  • Not considered Genocide b/c N. Sudan was not intent on killing one group
  • George Clooney and the Enough Project
  • Darfur Discrimination
  • The Asante of Ghana practice Ancestor worship – belief in spirits of dead
  • They also believe in animism – belief that ordinary things are gods (ex. River, sun)
  • Vary rapid pop. Growth
  • Muslim/ Christian Split
trade links empires
Trade Links & Empires
  • Ppl from N. sought ivory, slaves, gold.
  • Ppl from S. sought salt
  • Central location of Sahel’s trade route became a bridge b/w Med. Coast and rest of Africa
  • Chiefs (Ghanas) grew wealthy from taxes on traders.
  • Ghana – greatest kingdom in the Sahel
  • Mali – one of the largest empires in the world.
  • Songhai will later replace Mali, but is destroyed in 1591 by Moroccans
trade along the coastal countries
Trade Along the Coastal Countries
  • European traders came for gold, ivory, palm oil, & slaves
  • iron ore, peanuts, and cocoa also exported
  • Large debt – 9 bill per yr just to pay interest
the sahel today
The Sahel Today
  • The Sahel includes the countries of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad, & Ghana
  • Farming: short rainy season
    • Use Shifting Agriculture (farming one area until exhaustion then moving to another area) to deal with poor soil
    • Grow millet, sorghum, and peanuts
the sahel today1
The Sahel Today
  • Herding:
    • Camels, cattle, & sheep
    • Baobab & Acacia trees provide forage (green food) for grazing animals
    • Overgrazing and deforestation damaged the environment
    • Sahel suffering from increased desertification (increasing the desert)
    • Causing ppl to flock to refugee (ppl fleeing due to political or economic reasons)camps
economic opportunities
Economic Opportunities
  • Women are key – grass roots: effort begins w/ ppl
  • Women grow crops in war against hunger & are est. farming co-ops. (subsistence farming)
  • Women own the food markets
  • Liberia founded in 1822 by freed Amer. Slaves – independence in 1847
  • Liberia military coup in 1980 – chaos– 1996 return to democracy
  • In Benin – 6 coups (military overthrows) from 1963-1972
  • Multiparty Democracy,
  • Market economy, but very poor
sierra leone
Sierra Leone
  • 1996 – free elections
  • Today – anarchy
  • Failed banking system
  • No more free elections
  • Rebels control the diamond mines
  • Freetown, one of the largest harbors in the world
  • 31% literacy rate
people of nigeria
People of Nigeria
  • Yoruba – SW
  • Ibo – SE
  • Hausa (traders) & Fulani (herders) – N
  • English – official language (250 total)
  • Muslim /Christian split
  • 9 / 36 states adopted Shariah (Islamic Law) Lacks unity among regions
  • Varying climate
military leadership
Military Leadership
  • Govt collapsed with fall of oil prices in 1983– dependence on oil
  • Turned to World Bank & International Monetary Fund (give loans to developing countries)
  • 1986 began structural adjustment program suggested by World Bank– proposed how to fix economy, can’t borrow money unless follows guidelines
nigeria today
Nigeria Today
  • In 1993 Gen. Sani Abacha took over & ended to structural adjustment program and increased the debt
  • 1st free elections in 1999
  • Currently a Federal Republic
early history
Early History
  • Aksum: 100 CE along the Red Sea
  • Berlin Conference: divided all of Africa, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free of European control
  • Divisions were made with little regard to already established ethnic boundaries
  • Kushite civilization about 3500 yrs old
  • Long droughts have caused famine & starvation
  • Relies on other countries for aid
  • Landlocked
  • Home of Lucy – oldest human skeleton ever found
  • Used to be part of Ethiopia
  • Located along Red Sea
  • Split b/w Christians and Muslims
  • No official language
  • Provisional govt due to cont. conflict with Ethiopia
  • Independence in 1960
  • 1980s – lg civil war started
  • 1991 – state of anarchy
  • Severe drought in 1990s – about 1.5 mill risked starvation
  • Currently have a democracy ran by Sharia Law
  • Independence in 1962 – dictator, Idi Amin came to power
  • 300,000 died or disappeared under his rule in 1970s
  • Led to rebellion by Joseph Kony
  • 2001 free elections for president
  • Still problems
  • Invisible Children
rwandan genocide
Rwandan Genocide
  • Ethnocracy (1 ethnic group rules the others)
  • Genocide: intent on killing a specific group of ppl based on race, religion, ethnicity, etc.
  • 80% belong to Hutu group
  • 20% Tutsi
  • Hutu in power for 35 yrs after overthrowing Tutsi in 1959 – killed 100,000 Tutsi
  • In 1994 100,000s of Tutsi were murdered in civil war, 2 mill refugees
  • Currently they share power
  • “Hotel Rwanda”Hotel Rwanda- One million Voices
  • Tutsi in power but only 14% of pop.
  • Tutsi control army & use army to control pop.
  • Thousands have died since independence in 1962
  • Violence continues
  • Great potential wealth
  • Poor development
  • Pop. Subjected to Villagization (forced to move into towns to work on collective farms)
  • After Socialism was abandoned the economy began to repair
bantu migrations
Bantu Migrations
  • Culture who speaks Bantu
  • Started around 2000 BCE
  • MASS MIGRATION across Africa
  • Today 100s of Bantu languages and they helped spread much of African culture
african slave trade
African Slave Trade
  • Started w/ Portuguese on Sao Tome near Gabon
  • Africans were both sold and the sellers
  • Trading posts along coasts
  • Most slaves from interior
  • Many countries of Western & Central Africa belong to a financial community known as the CFA
  • Use currency called CFA franc (can be exchanged for French franc)
  • Use of common currency promotes trade & travel
  • Used in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Central African Republic, etc.
renewable resources
Renewable Resources
  • Hydroelectricity
  • Central African Republic lies on a watershed (dividing ridge b/w 2 basins) – 80% of hydroelectricity produced here
  • In Cote d’Ivoire – 85% of rainforest destroyed since 1940s--- increased global warming
nonrenewable resources
Nonrenewable Resources
  • Resources such as minerals and petroleum
  • Dem. Rep. of Congo –copper, more Cobalt than any other country in world, diamonds
the congo under leopold
The Congo Under Leopold
  • King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Congo Genocide (10-20 million died)
  • Congo River development, RR
  • King Leopold’s Ghost
  • Europeans are responsible for the development of transportation in Africa
countries of southern africa
Countries of Southern Africa
  • Includes countries of Lesotho & Swaziland which are enclaves (country within a country) of South Africa
south african inequality under british rule
South African Inequality under British rule
  • Minority Rule: 75% Black, 14% White… whites are ruling class
  • Whites own the diamond & gold mines
  • Whites own best farmland
  • Whites control the govt.
  • Still whites dominate the upper class
boer war
Boer War
  • Afrikaners (Boers) – Europeans that pushed the natives off their land
  • War in 1899… resulted in English rule
  • Black Africans sent to work on plantations
south african independence from britain
South African Independence from Britain
  • Independence in 1961
  • 1950-1980: fast growing economy
    • Coal reserves
    • DeBeers Diamonds
    • Capital to invest
    • Connection w/ Britain to build factories
    • Cheap labor (natives)
south african segregation
South African Segregation
  • 75% of pop. Forced to live on 14% of land
  • All were assigned to a homeland--- created an apartheid (racial segregation in S. Africa)
  • Under apartheid, Africans were forced to be segregated
international backlash
International Backlash
  • 1986 Europe and USA economic sanctions (bans on imports) against S. Africa
  • US sanctions --- prohibited Amer. Investment & banned imports
  • Caused imports to fall by 40% in 1st yr.
nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • Held in prison for 27yrs for apartheid actions
  • Leader of African National Congress
  • Achieved 1st free elections in 1994
  • 1st black president
  • 1996 – new constitution--- equal rights to all
  • wealthier b/c diamonds, copper, coal, cattle
  • very dry
  • Okavango Delta- world's largest inland delta.
  • Diamonds are Botswana's primary export.
  • Coastal, former Portuguese colonies (1975)
  • White Flight: departure of skilled labor
  • Communist
  • Rebels went to war against new govt. Both were backed by S. Africa
  • Countries deteriorated (death & disease)
  • Angola – 1st free election in 1992
  • Mozambique remains one of poorest countries in world
  • 80% farming
  • Portuguese official language
  • Democracy
  • 30% literate
  • Most are animists
  • (1964) part of the copper belt, relied on 1 resource--- copper prices fell, economy fell
  • Victoria Falls
  • 80% Christian
  • English – official
  • Democracy, but chiefdoms still remain
  • 15% of population infected with HIV
  • Great Zimbabwe: est. by the Shona ppl (Bantu)
  • Mutapa Empire: extended Great Zimbabwe
  • (1965) white minority ruled govt…1st free elections in 1980, new leader---Robert Mugabe– land redistribution plan failed
  • began new basic infrastructure, still no peace for blacks and whites
economic issues of africa

Economic Issues of Africa

Key Concepts:

Reliance on one resource = Unstable Economies

Continuous ethnic fighting = Unstable Governments

one commodity countries
One-Commodity Countries
  • Copper (Zambia)
  • Oil (Nigeria)
  • Diamonds (Botswana)
  • Agriculture
  • When the price goes up, the economy goes up, but when the price goes down, the economy goes down too
  • instability
unstable governments
Unstable Governments
  • Colonial rule
  • Colonial influence
  • Coups
  • Military leadership
  • Lack of unity b/c MANY ethnic groups
  • Lack of education
  • Corruption
african union
African Union

Established in 1999 to promote peace and prosperity in Africa

Focus on Human Rights, growing economies, democratic governments, develop technology, and to promote healthy living

Almost every nation in Africa is a member

Similar to NATO, but runs like the UN

Similar goals of the UN

african health care the aids epidemic

African Health Care & the AIDS Epidemic

Key Concepts:

Water Scarcity

Deadly Diseases

HIV/AIDS Epidemic

ten leading risk factors for preventable disease
Maternal and child underweight

Unsafe sex

High blood pressure



Unsafe water, poor sanitation, and hygiene

High cholesterol

Indoor smoke from solid fuels

Iron deficiency

High body mass index or overweight

Ten Leading Risk Factorsfor Preventable Disease

Source: WHO, World Health Report 2002: Reducing Risk, Promoting Healthy Life (Geneva: WHO, 2002), accessed online at www.who.int, on Nov. 15, 2004.

global causes of death
Global Causes of Death


Communicable diseases, maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies

Noncommunicable diseases

Source: WHO, World Health Report 2000—Health Systems: Improving Performance (Geneva: WHO, 2000).

Individuals (where they fetch water, boiling water, washing hands)
  • Communities (fatalism regarding diarrheal diseases, community latrines)
  • Governments (ignore or underfund safe water and sanitation needs)
diseases related to water scarcity
Diseases Related to Water Scarcity
  • Cholera: severe diarrhea that can cause death
  • Malaria: comes from mosquitoes born in standing water (fever)
  • Dysentery: severe diarrhea
  • No proper sanitation or filtering system
other viruses prominent in africa
Other Viruses Prominent in Africa
  • Tuberculosis: respiratory infection, no cure, cough up blood
  • Ebola: “Hot Zone” – liquifies your insides, no cure
  • Smallpox: sm. Blisters, no cure
maternal and child underweight
Maternal and Child Underweight
  • Individuals (may resist nutrition education)
  • Communities (male preference norms)
  • Policymakers (fail to address poverty)
  • Health planners and health workers (do not include nutrition programs for the poor)

unsafe sex
Unsafe Sex

1. Individuals (abstinence, fidelity, condoms)

2. Communities (norms regarding male dominance and multiple partners)

3. Poverty (transactional sex for poor women)

4. Health policymakers and health workers (effective AIDS prevention programs)

aids hiv in africa
AIDS/HIV In Africa
  • HIV is the virus
  • AIDS in the syndrome that kills you
  • Swaziland 3:4 deaths are due to AIDS
  • UNAIDS: UN program that studies AIDS
  • Africa needs $4.63 billion to fight the pandemic
  • About 80 million worldwide have AIDS
3 ways to get hiv
3 Ways to Get HIV
  • Blood to Blood Transmission (includes sharing needles, blood transfusions, & in the womb)
  • Sex
  • Breastfeeding
children orphaned by aids in sub saharan africa
Children Orphaned by AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

Source: UNAIDS, 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2006.

Distribution of Orphans, by Country, 2005

behavior change successes
Behavior Change Successes
  • Reducing malnutrition (micronutrient initiatives)
  • Preventing malaria (insecticide-treated bednets)
  • Helping children survive (breastfeeding)
  • Improving maternal health (safe motherhood movement, emergency obstetric care)
  • Making family planning a norm (worldwide efforts)
  • Combating HIV/AIDS (Uganda program)
combating hiv aids in uganda
Combating HIV/AIDS in Uganda
  • Political support, multisectoral response
  • Decentralized behavior change campaigns
  • Focus on women and youth, stigma and discrimination
  • Mobilization of religious leaders
  • Confidential voluntary counseling and testing
  • Social marketing of condoms
  • Control and prevention of STDs
  • Improving global health requires behavior change at every level—individuals, families, communities, organizations, and policymaking bodies
  • Evidence-based behavioral theories and successful behavior-change case histories point the way
  • Next step: political will and sufficient resources