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A Happy Coincidence? The Human Security and Development Impact of Japanese Strategic Aid Assistance. Associate Professor Brendan Howe, PhD Ewha Institute for Development and Human Security. Introduction.

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a happy coincidence the human security and development impact of japanese strategic aid assistance

A Happy Coincidence? The Human Security and Development Impact of Japanese Strategic Aid Assistance

Associate Professor Brendan Howe, PhD

Ewha Institute for Development and Human Security

introduction
Introduction
  • Japan has followed a mixture of proactive and reactive policies towards partners in East Asia.
  • Pacifist constitution and lingering animosity = non-traditional security agenda.
  • Widely criticized for aid policies.
  • Nevertheless, significant collateral benefit in terms of regional development and human security has accrued a by-product of Japanese strategic positioning.
the not so reactive state
The Not So Reactive State
  • Reactive state in traditional security arena.
  • Pro-active state in NTS and East Asia
  • Benevolent state?
  • Happy Coincidence
human security and human development
Human Security and Human Development
  • People-centred.
  • Challenge orthodoxy.
  • Multi-dimensional.
  • Address dignity as well as material and physical concerns.
  • Mutually reinforcing.
  • Impose duties on wider international community.
japan and human security
Japan and Human Security
  • Given internal and external structural constraints on the use of force, Japan has consistently tried to pursue its foreign policy through economic means such as ODA, foreign direct investment and loans rather than by military means.
  • Not surprising therefore has adopted broad definition as foundation for Japan’s policy agenda for ODA, and an integral part of its foreign policy.
  • Concepts of human security and development, and ODA and foreign policy/non-traditional security agenda have become increasingly entwined.
criticism
Criticism
  • Securitization and domopolitics.
  • ‘blurring the particularity of diverse problems, and obscuring concrete solutions’.
  • Prioritization of its own national interest in determining aid policy
  • Nevertheless has contributed to the furtherance of both East Asian development and human security precisely because these tenets have come to form the bedrock of Tokyo’s foreign and security policy.
contributions and impact 1
Contributions and Impact 1
  • ODA to China 1979-2007 US$21 billion supporting development of infrastructure, FDI and trade.
  • (1) Japanese ODA contributed to the development of China’s industrial infrastructure;
  • (2) the strengthening of Chinese infrastructure attracted and facilitated the inflow of FDI from MNCs;
  • (3) FDI encouraged expansion and diversification of China’s foreign trade;
  • (4) the expanded and diversified Chinese foreign trade promoted economic development
contributions and impact 2
Contributions and Impact 2
  • As in China, Japanese ODA in Southeast Asia has focused on infrastructure building as a foundation for social and economic development.
  • Has both generated wealth and enhanced human security for Southeast Asians.
  • Since 1990s when human security discourse came to the fore by far the largest portion of ODA has been distributed to social and economic infrastructure.
human security agenda
Human Security Agenda
  • The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has placed human security at the center of Japanese aid policy.
  • Since human security is also a means to strengthen international reputation, Tokyo looks to strengthen international fora.
  • Commission on Human Security (CHS).
  • Trust Fund for Human Security in the United Nations
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Japan has pursued its concept of human security through providing ODA and establishing and funding to multilateral human security agencies.
  • By adopting the concept as a criterion in ODA distribution, Japan can contribute to the world’s peace and security while continuing to respect its pacifist Constitution.
  • In this sense, Japan’s ODA provision may be regarded as a non-military strategic instrument, but one which gives substantial benefit to recipients.
slide15

By institutionalizing human security in the UN, Japan takes advantage administrative structures and human resources, and increased legitimacy, to promote both human and traditional security.

  • While Japan has emphasized freedom from want through its ODA policy, it has indirectly contributed to freedom from fear by funding the UNTFHS to focus more on conflict issues.
  • Even if Tokyo is motivated strictly by narrow self-interest, the peoples of East Asia have collaterally benefited in terms of both human security and development from Japan’s strategic aid initiatives.