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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

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Human Growth and Development

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  1. Human Growth and Development

  2. Human Growth and Development • ExploreGo • Genetics(Lessons 1-3)Go • Prenatal and Neonatal(Lessons 4-6)Go • Childhood(Lessons 7-10)Go • Adolescence(Lessons 11-12)Go • Adulthood(Lessons 13-16)Go • Aging and Death(Lessons 17-20)Go • ReflectGo TABLE OF CONTENTS

  3. Explore • Unit Overview Go • Activity Go

  4. Explore – Unit Overview In this unit, you will: • Explore the basics of genetics. • Examine the four areas of human growth throughout the lifespan. • Learn about the grief process.

  5. Explore - Activity You will watch a role-play and participate in a class discussion.

  6. Genetics • 1. IntroductionGo • 2. GeneticsGo • 3. QuizGo

  7. Lesson 1 – Human Growth and Development • Human growth and development is the study of how people change as they go through life. • Development is similar for everyone, but each person grows and develops at an individual rate.

  8. Lesson 1 – Areas of Development • Physical development - all the bodily changes that occur as a person grows and ages. • Intellectual development - a person’s ability to learn something and then apply this knowledge to new problems and experiences. • Emotional development - changes in a person’s ability to establish a unique identity and express feelings. • Social development - learning to interact with other people.

  9. Lesson 1 – Hierarchy of Human Needs • A psychologist named Abraham Maslow developed a system of basic human needs. • Hierarchy of human needs: • Food, shelter, bodily comfort • Safety, security • To feel loved, have a sense of belonging • Self-esteem, approval • Desire to live up to one’s potential

  10. Lesson 2 – Genetics • Genetics is an area of biology that deals with the passing of genes from parents to children. • Genes contain DNA: • DNA consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes • Each pair is made up of one chromosome from the mother and one from the father.

  11. Lesson 2 – Genetic Diseases • Genes can mutate, or break, and become the basis of disease. • Two types of genetic diseases: • Single-gene • Chromosomal

  12. Lesson 2 – Single Gene Diseases • A single-gene disease results from an individual mutant gene. • This type of mutant gene may either create an abnormality or fail to make something that is necessary. • Examples: • Cystic fibrosis • Phenylketonuria • Hemophilia • Albinism • Sickle cell anemia • Red-green color blindness • Tay-Sachs disease • Huntington disease

  13. Lesson 2 – Chromosomal Diseases • Chromosomal diseases are the result of chromosomal breakage, an abnormal chromosome, or a missing chromosome • Two categories of chromosomal diseases are trisomy and monosomy. • Examples: • Down syndrome • Klinefelter syndrome • Turner syndrome

  14. Lesson 2 – Genetic Research • Gene therapy - treatment of single-cell disease by replacing the mutant gene. • Genetic engineering - imitation and artificial manipulation of DNA to create recombinant DNA.

  15. Lesson 3 – Quiz In this lesson, you will take a quiz on human growth and development and genetics.

  16. Prenatal and Neonatal • 4. PrenatalGo • 5. NeonatalGo • 6. QuizGo

  17. Lesson 4 – Prenatal Development • Prenatal development lasts approximately 38 weeks from conception to birth. • Three periods of development: • Zygote • Embryo • Fetus

  18. Lesson 4 – Zygote Period • The zygote is formed at conception and continues to develop for the first two weeks. • The zygote travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus and implants itself in the uterine wall. • After 2 weeks, the placenta begins to grow and is attaches to the zygote via the umbilical cord.

  19. Lesson 4 – Embryo Period • The embryo period begins at the end of the second week and ends at the end of the eighth week. • First half of this period: • The ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm layers develop. • The heart begins to pump. • Second half of this period: • Facial features, arms, legs, fingers, and toes form. • Can respond to touch.

  20. Lesson 4 – Fetus Period • The fetus period begins in the ninth week and continues through birth. • At the beginning of this period: • Organs, muscles, and the nervous system organize. • The lungs expand and contract. • The external genitals are distinguishable. • The fingernails, toenails, tooth buds, and eyelids develop.

  21. Lesson 4 – Fetus Period (continued) • 18 Weeks - Fetal movements are felt by the mother. • 20 Weeks - The fetus can hear sounds and react to them. • 24 Weeks - All the brain neurons are developed. • 25 to 38 Weeks – The fetus has a chance for survival outside the womb. This is called the age of viability.

  22. Lesson 4 – Prenatal Health Issues • Teratogens - environmental substances that cause damage during prenatal development • Medications • Drugs, cigarettes, and alcohol • Radiation and pollution • Infectious disease • Other health issues can include: • The mother’s nutrition and stress level • Rh blood incompatibility • The mother’s age and previous pregnancy experiences

  23. Lesson 4 – Medications • Almost all medications that are taken by the mother can reach the embryo or fetus through the bloodstream. • Medications can cause: • Low birth weight • Lower intelligence later in life • Death • Mothers must consult doctors before taking any medications.

  24. Lesson 4 – Illegal Drugs • Fetuses exposed to illegal drugs in the womb are at risk of: • Low birth weight • Numerous defects • Death • If the fetus manages to survive through birth, the baby is likely born with a drug addiction.

  25. Lesson 4 – Cigarettes • Cigarette smoking while pregnant can cause: • Low birth weight • Cancer in childhood • Miscarriage • Death • Second-hand smoke can also put children at risk

  26. Lesson 4 – Alcohol • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious effect caused by the mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy. • Children with FAS may have: • Mental retardation • Poor attention • Hyperactivity, • Facial abnormalities • Slow growth

  27. Lesson 4 – Radiation • Pregnant women should avoid exposure to radiation, including medical X-rays. • Exposure to radiation can cause: • Miscarriage • Poor physical growth • Brain damage • Cancer

  28. Lesson 4 – Pollution • Some environmental pollution dangers include mercury, lead, and PCBs. • Exposure to pollutants can cause: • Brain damage • Mental retardation • Low birth weight

  29. Lesson 4 – Infectious Disease • Infectious disease can be difficult for pregnant mothers to evade. • Common illnesses such as the cold and flu are essentially harmless to the fetus as long as the mother is well-rested and continues to get nutrients. • Serious infectious disease can cause: • Birth defects • Low birth weight • Miscarriages

  30. Lesson 4 – Non-Teratogen Prenatal Health Issues • Pregnant women must be certain to get proper nutrition. The level of malnutrition of the mother is directly linked to brain weight in the child. • Pregnant women should also try to remain stress-free. Anxiety can have harmful effects on the fetus.

  31. Lesson 4 – Non-Teratogen Prenatal Health Issues (continued) • Rh blood incompatibility between the mother and fetus can cause: • Mental retardation • Heart damage • Death • Blood tests and vaccines are given to prevent illness or injury resulting from Rh incompatibility.

  32. Lesson 5 – Neonatal Development • The first four weeks of life are called the neonatal, or newborn, stage. • In this stage, special attention is given to: • Parent-child bonding • Reflexes • Temperament • States of arousal • Sensory capabilities

  33. Lesson 5 – The Apgar Scale • The Apgar scale rates newborns in the following areas: • Appearance • Pulse • Grimace • Activity • Respiration • Apgar scores: • 7 to 10 – Healthiest • 4 and 6 – Need assistance with breathing or other vital signs • 0 and 3 – Need serious emergency medical attention

  34. Lesson 5 – Bonding • Bonding is a parent’s deep affection and concern for the newborn. • Parents and children develop a special bond that allows the infant to grow and develop with confidence. • Some parents instantly bond, while other parents bond over the first few weeks.

  35. Lesson 5 – Reflexes • Reflexes are expected, automatic responses to specific stimulants. • Newborn reflexes include: • Rooting reflex • Sucking reflex • Palmer reflex • Most of these reflexes should disappear as the baby grows and develops.

  36. Lesson 5 – Sensory Capabilities • Touch – most important sense for newborns • Taste – prefer sweet over salty • Smell – respond to good and bad smells • Sound – special interest in the human voice • Vision – least developed sense in a newborn

  37. Lesson 5 – Newborn States of Arousal • Newborns continually cycle through five states of arousal: • Regular sleep – deep sleep with little movement • Irregular sleep – light sleep with body movement • Drowsiness – waking up or falling asleep • Quiet alertness – awake and attentive • Waking activity and crying – uncoordinated movements and irregular breathing

  38. Lesson 5 – Neonatal Health Issues • The transition from the womb into the world does not occur smoothly. • Neonatal health issues include: • Premature birth • Respiratory issues • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

  39. Lesson 5 – Premature Birth • Premature birth is used to describe infants that are preterm or small-for-date. • Preterm babies are born 3 weeks or more before the 38-week due date. • Small-for-date babies weigh less than expected compared to their length of time in the womb. • With proper care and special attention, many premature babies go on to lead normal, healthy lives.

  40. Lesson 5 – Respiratory Issues • In respiratory distress syndrome, a baby’s air sacs collapse, which makes breathing very strenuous • Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature or full-term babies. • Babies with respiratory distress syndrome are attached to respirators until they can breathe comfortably on their own.

  41. Lesson 5 – SIDS • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurs when an infant dies during sleep. • Death occurs with no trauma to the child and no indication from the child, such as crying, prior to death. • No cause, cure, or prevention has been found for SIDS.

  42. Lesson 6 – Quiz In this lesson, you will take a quiz on prenatal and neonatal development.

  43. Childhood • 7. Infants and ToddlersGo • 8. Early ChildhoodGo • 9. Middle ChildhoodGo • 10. QuizGo

  44. Lesson 7 – Infants and Toddlers • Infancy generally refers to the first year of life. • Toddler refers to the second year of life. • During this time, children continue to progress rapidly in all areas of development.

  45. Lesson 7 – Infants and Toddlers: Physical Development • Infants: • Establish a day and night sleeping pattern • Hold up their heads, roll over, and reach for things • Hearing and depth perception improve • Crawl and then walk • Toddlers: • Gain weight and height • Run, jump, and climb • Scribble and stack blocks

  46. Lesson 7 – Infants and Toddlers: Intellectual Development • Infants: • Imitate facial expressions • Recognize people, places, and objects • Make sounds that resemble spoken language • Toddlers: • Experiment with objects • Play make-believe • Imitate adults • Begin to speak and communicate • Build a 200-word vocabulary

  47. Lesson 7 – Infants and Toddlers: Emotional Development • Infants: • Show basic emotions • Anger and fear increase • Develop stranger anxiety • May develop separation anxiety • Toddlers: • Show empathy • Able to cooperate • Begin to express shame, embarrassment, and pride • Self-control emerges

  48. Lesson 7 – Infants and Toddlers: Social Development • Infants: • Begin to smile and laugh • Match emotional facial expressions of adults • Able to interpret others’ emotions • Toddlers: • Play with siblings • Show signs of gender-stereotypical toy choices

  49. Lesson 7 – Infant Health Issues • Infants and toddlers should have a series of immunizations to prevent several diseases, such as hepatitis B and polio. • Children are also susceptible to accidental injuries, such as choking, drowning, and poisoning. • These fatal situations are often avoidable when children are given proper care and watched closely.

  50. Lesson 8 – Early Childhood • Early childhood generally occurs between the ages of 2 and 6. • During this time, children continue to develop physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially.