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What will we be studying, and what is expected of you as a student? These notes (like all of the notes this year) can be found on my SchoolWires pages, under Classroom Materials. Introduction to Earth Science –Mr. Hayden
What is expected of you this year? • Be prepared for class on a daily basis • Notebook • Pencil • Binder • Maintain a neat notebook throughout the year • Will be checked for points • Check my website as needed • Check your grades weekly • Become a lifelong learner
Branches of Earth Science • 1. Astronomy – study of space (outside of Earth’s atmosphere and celestial bodies) • 2. Meteorology – study of the Earth’s atmosphere • 3. Oceanography – study of Earth’s oceans • 4.Geology – study of the Earth (“geo” means Earth) • Also: NOT EARTH SCIENCE!!! • Environmental Science – how organisms and the environment affect each other. • Life Science or Biology – study of living things
Introductory Quiz • Be able to remember the name of each of the four Branches of Earth Science and what it is they study. • Be able to place each of the topics we discussed into the most appropriate category of Earth Science. • Lastly, be able to DESCRIBE/EXPLAIN topics that can fit into more than one of the branches of Earth Science as an essay question.
Practice with these topics…which branch would BEST fit each? • Weather • Ozone layer • Cells • Meteors • Rocks • Types of Trees • Coal • Air temperature • Metal ores • Hurricanes • Rain • Saltwater • Stars
History of the Earth • Tornadoes • Precipitation • Fish • Diamonds • Solar Systems • Tides • Clouds • Earthquakes • The Moon • Soil • Sharks • Minerals
Scientific Method and Scientific Testing We use the scientific method to solve problems or answer questions.
Steps of the Scientific Method • 1. Identify your problem/question. - Problem must be able to be tested scientifically. • 2. Research your problem • Scientists share information • Use reliable sources. • Identify bias in your research
3. Create a hypothesis. • An educated guess. • Usually an “if” “then” • Always based on research! • 4. Test your hypothesis scientifically
Testing your hypothesis • Test as many trials as possible. • Quantify your data (use numbers) • Make everything in your test constant (the same) • Test data should be organized if possible
Creating your test • Must contain an independentvariable • Also known as manipulated variable • Scientist changes this • Independent changes the dependentvariable • Also known as responding variable • Changes based on independent variable • Tests may contain a control group • group separated from the rest of the experiment where the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results • Often given a “placebo”, intended to deceive the recipient
5. Analyze your data • Don’t be biased! • Identify flaws in your test. • 6. Make your conclusion • Often, this identifies a new problem or changes your hypothesis. • Share results so that they can be retested, confirmed, etc. • Share results with others – scientific knowledge builds!
Correlations • Correlations show cause and effect between two values. • If changing one value affects another value, there is a correlation between the two.
Positive Correlation As one factor increases, the other factor increases. Or. As one factor decreases, The other also decreases.
Negative Correlation As one factor increases, The other decreases. Or. As one factor decreases, The other one increases.
No Correlation • There is no connection between one value increasing And the other value.
How I want you to answer! • Name, describe and draw the correlation • Name it as positive negative or none. • Describe how one factor affects the other • Draw the chart that shows the correlation
Let’s practice correlations • Remember: 1. name 2. describe and 3. chart each. • The correlation between how much you eat, and your bodyweight. • The correlation between the amount of cardiovascular exercise and your weight. • The correlation between how much money you spend and your bank account. • The correlation between Kevin Constant’s weight and Jordan Powell’s Earth Science grade.