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Vertebrate Amniotes: Mammals
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  1. Vertebrate Amniotes: Mammals Exercise 22

  2. Goals for today • Learn to recognized the different anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of mammals • Learn about the subclasses of mammals Extinct

  3. Class Mammalia Mammals Hallmark characteristics of birds: • Presence of hair (endothermy) • Mammary glands • 3 inner ear bones • Dentary-squamosal jaw articulation • Heterodont dentition (varied teeth) • Presence of pinnae (external ears) • Diaphragm and 4-chambered heart • Mammalian brain with characteristic neocortex to regulate endothermic and circulatory systems http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YSCLSFm2eA

  4. Subclass Monotremata Characteristics • Echidnas and Platypus • Most primitive extant mammals • Lay eggs • Mammary glands lack nipples (pezones) • 3 living species are highly specialized, toothless Photos from Arkive

  5. Platypus: Cool facts! The platypus is one of the few mammals to produce venom. Males have a pair of spurs on their hind limbs. The male's pair of spurs spits out a cocktail of poisons that, while excruciatingly painful, is not lethal to most animals. Unlike snake venom, there appears to be no necrotic component in the Platypus' venom - although some muscle wastage has been observed in cases of envenomation in humans, it is likely that this is due to the inability to use the limb while the effects of the venom persist

  6. Subclass Metatheria-Marsupials Characteristics • Young complete development in pouch-marsupial • Maximum dental formula: 5/4, 1/1, 3/3, 4/4 • More complex limb musculature • Angle of jaw bends inward • 330 species in Neotropics, Australian region

  7. Subclass Metatheria-Marsupials Monito del Monte Kaguros Koalas Wombat Zorro pelon Demonio de Tasmania

  8. Marsupials: Cool facts! Only living marsupial with a rudimentary placenta: Bandicoots The embryos of bandicoots, unlike other marsupials, form a placenta-like organ that connects it to the uterine wall.The function of this organ is probably to transfer nutrients from the mother; however the structure is small, compared to those of the Placentalia. Wikipedia Arkive: Golden Bandicoot

  9. Subclass Eutheria, the placental mammals Characteristics • Extended gestation with complex placenta • Maximum dental formula: 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 3/3 • Morphologically very diverse • 5100 species, worldwide

  10. Mammal Locomotion Several terms describe how and where an animal moves • Aquatic animals swim; • Volantanimals fly. • Cursorialanimals (cursors) run rapidly and for long distances. • Scansorialanimals are climbers; in the extreme, they are arboreal, spending most of their lives in the trees. • Hoppersare termed saltatorial. If they use their hindlimbs only and in a fast succession of hops, they are said to be ricochetal. • Fossorial forms are diggers, usually living in burrows. Cursorial Scansorial Fossorial

  11. Mammal Locomotion Limbs are drastically modified to different ends in various groups of mammals. One way to increase stride length is to run on the tips of the toes

  12. The present-day native terrestrial mammal fauna of Puerto Rico is composed of only 13 species, all of which are bats. Eighteen marine mammals, including manatees, dolphins and whales, occur in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican Mammals A few examples Puerto Rican HutiaIsolobodonportoricensisEX Trichechusmanatus Vulnerable Red Fruit Bat Stenodermarufum VU

  13. Macaques and squirrel monkeys (Mono pata y Mono Rhesus) Black Rats, Norway rats, house mouse Small Asian Mangoose brought to control the rats in sugar plantations-failed and contributed to the decline of several bird species. Examples of Introduced mammals Others include cats, dogs, pigs, etc

  14. Most ‘diverse’ mammal groups: bats and cetaceans Marine Mammals Bats Humpback whale Fishing bat 18 species 13 species

  15. Extant bats of Puerto Rico belong to five families (Noctilionidae, Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, and Molossidae) and include a total of 13 species, of which six subspecies are endemic to the archipelago. Bats of Puerto Rico Jamaican Fruit-eating Bat (Eng.), MurcielagoFrutero (Sp.), Artibeusjamaicensis (Sci.), native, Puerto Rico, Greater and Lesser Antilles, Bahamas, Mexico, Central America, Paraguay and Brazil. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9CuO8qefY0

  16. Arguably the most famous of aquatic mammals occurring in Puerto Rican waters is the Antillean Manatee (Trichechusmanatusmanatus) which is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. The archipelago's waters are one of the species' main breeding areas. Marine Mammals of Puerto Rico The name manatí comes from the Taíno, a pre-Columbian people of the Caribbean, meaning "breast"

  17. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: • the Amazonian manatee (Trichechusinunguis), • the West Indian manatee (Trichechusmanatus), • and the West African manatee (Trichechussenegalensis). Manatees

  18. Manatees are herbivores and eat over 60 different plant species, such as mangrove leaves, turtle grass, and types of algae. • Manatees have few natural predators. Nevertheless, sharks, crocodiles and alligators have been known to prey on manatees from time to time.Overall, however, predation does not present a significant threat to the survival of any manatee species. Manatees http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p7txP9MOCqs&feature=related

  19. The main causes of death for the sea cows are human-related issues, jet skies, engine propels Manatees

  20. They emit a wide range of sounds used in communication, especially between cows and their calves. Adults communicate to maintain contact and during sexual and play behaviors. Taste and smell, in addition to sight, sound, and touch, may also be forms of communication. Manatees Listen to manatee sounds here http://www.savethemanatee.org/audio.htm

  21. Puerto Rico's waters are also an important breeding site for the Humpback whale during the Northern Hemisphere's winter. Humpback whale watching is a popular tourist attraction in the municipality of Rincón in western Puerto Rico. Marine Mammals of Puerto Rico Listen humpback whales here http://www.oceanmammalinst.org/songs.html

  22. Other native marine mammals in Puerto Rico Common dolphins Bottlenose dolphins Killer whales Atlantic spotted dolphins Cuvier’s beaked whale

  23. Whaling Whaling is the hunting of whales mainly for meat and oil. Its earliest forms date to at least 3000 BC. As technology increased and demand for the resources remained, catches far exceeded the sustainable limit for whale stocks. In the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually[2] and by the middle of the century whale stocks were not being replenished. In 1986 the International Whaling Commission (IWC) banned commercial whaling so that stocks might recover.

  24. Dolphinarios • Love to see dolphins in captivity? swim with them when you visit hotels, aquariums, theraphy centers, and dolphinarium. Do you know where they come from? Watch The Cove to find out and read this web site to get inform. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4KRD8e20fBo Solomon Island Japan http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/captive_marine/ http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/the-dolphin-defender/dolphin-captures-past-present-and-future/809/

  25. Tdoay: Rat Skeleton