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VERTEBRATES. When dinosaurs (& others) roamed the Earth…. VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata. GENERAL VERTEBRATE CHARACTERISTICS: Vertebrates = an animal with a backbone All vertebrates belong to the Phylum Chordata . Vertebrates live nearly everywhere (ocean, freshwater, land, air).

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vertebrates

VERTEBRATES

When dinosaurs (& others) roamed the Earth…

vertebrates phylum chordata
VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata

GENERAL VERTEBRATE CHARACTERISTICS:

  • Vertebrates = an animal with a backbone
  • All vertebrates belong to the Phylum Chordata.
  • Vertebrates live nearly everywhere (ocean, freshwater, land, air)
vertebrates phylum chordata3
VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata
  • They have an endoskeleton, including a skull, backbone and jointed appendages
  • Vertebrates have a closed circulatory system with a chambered heart.
vertebrates phylum chordata4
VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata
  • Vertebrates have a complex nervous system
  • They can be:
      • Oviparous = egg birth (Ex. birds)
      • Viviparous = live birth (Ex. humans)
      • Ovoviviparous = egg live birth

(Ex. snakes)

vertebrates phylum chordata5
VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata
  • The classes of vertebrates:
vertebrates phylum chordata6
VERTEBRATES: Phylum Chordata

Terms to know:

  • Ectothermic- an animal whose body temperature is determined by its environment.
  • Endothermic- an animal that generates its own body heat.
class agnatha8
CLASS AGNATHA
  • Lampreys & hagfish
  • These are the jawless fish
  • They are slippery, eel-like animals with no scales
  • They do not have fins

Lamprey

class agnatha9
CLASS AGNATHA
  • Agnathans have a 2-chambered heart and are ectothermic.
  • Their skeleton is comprised of cartilage.
  • Emit slime for defense

Hagfish slime

class chondrichthyes11
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
  • Sharks & rays
  • This class includes animals with jaws and teeth
  • Their skeleton is made of cartilage and they have paired fins.

Shark

class chondrichthyes12
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
  • These animals have a 2-chambered heart and are ectothermic.
  • They live in salt water (ocean)
  • Fertilization is internal

Manta ray

class chondrichthyes13
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
  • Sharks are covered with scales and have sharp spines
  • They have a keen sense of smell and can sense vibrations made in the water miles away!

Shark

class chondrichthyes15
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
  • Rays have flattened, kite-like bodies and smooth skin.
class osteichthyes17
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
  • Largest class of vertebrates (over 29,000 species!!)
  • Includes all fish like perch, bass, salmon, swordfish, etc.
  • These are bony fish that have jaws.

Swordfish

class osteichthyes18
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
  • Bony fish have a 2-chambered heart
  • Ectothermic
  • They breathe using gills covered by a plate called an operculum
  • This plate keeps unwanted water from entering the gills
class osteichthyes19
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
  • Fish utilize a swim bladder, which is a gas-filled organ.
  • By adjusting the volume of gas in the swim bladder, a fish can maintain the correct amount of buoyancy needed for a particular depth

of water.

Swim bladder

class osteichthyes20
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
  • Bony fish utilize a lateral line system for detecting changes in water pressure and vibrations.
  • They have both dorsal and anal fins that serve to keep the fish from rolling and help it stay straight in the water.
class osteichthyes21
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
  • Fish also have a both pelvic and pectoral fins, which they use for balancing and turning.
  • Their caudal fin propels them through the water.
  • Reproduction: fertilization takes place externally.
class amphibia24
CLASS AMPHIBIA
  • Amphibians include animals such as frogs, toads, salamanders and newts.
  • Their name means “living 2 ways” so they live on land and in water.

Salamander

class amphibia25
CLASS AMPHIBIA
  • They have a bony skeleton.
  • Amphibians have a 3-chambered heart and are ectothermic.
  • These animals evolved legs which they use for walking and swimming.
  • Most larval forms have gills, but by adulthood the gills are replaced by lungs (think tadpole  frog)
class amphibia26
CLASS AMPHIBIA

Frog Life Cycle

class amphibia27
CLASS AMPHIBIA
  • Amphibians have thin, moist skin with no scales. This feature allows them to breathe through their skin ( or perform cutaneous respiration).
class amphibia28
CLASS AMPHIBIA
  • Amphibian fertilization is external (outside the body) and eggs require a wet environment.
  • Frogs & toads are

tailless, but

salamanders & newts

have tails.

  • Most amphibians

are carnivores.

Newt

quiz alert
QUIZ ALERT!

Study for an upcoming quiz next class over the Vertebrate notes we have covered thus far!

class reptilia31
CLASS REPTILIA
  • This class includes animals like snakes, alligators, crocodiles, turtles and dinosaurs.
  • Reptiles can complete their entire life cycle on land
class reptilia32
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Dinosaurs are extinct reptiles that are thought to have been eliminated when a huge meteor struck the Earth and blocked out the sun.
  • Without sun for heat & food, dinosaurs began to die off and

eventually became extinct.

class reptilia33
CLASS REPTILIA
  • The reptilian egg (called an amniotic egg) is adapted for land – it is water- tight and contains its own supply of water.
class reptilia34
CLASS REPTILIA
  • A reptile egg consists of the following:
  • YOLK SAC- provides nutrients to baby
  • ALLONTOIS- holds wastes products
  • AMNION- keeps embryo moist & protects

it from injury

  • CHORION- outermost layer;

lets oxygen in & keeps

water in

class reptilia35
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Most reptiles have tough, dry, leathery skin covered in scales (snakes have scales but tend to have moist skin)
  • Most have a 3-chambered heart, but some have 4
class reptilia36
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Reptiles use internal fertilization
  • Their skeleton is made entirely of bone
class reptilia37
CLASS REPTILIA
  • They have lungs throughout their life
  • Ectothermic (many often “sunbathe” to regulate their body temperature
class reptilia38
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Turtles (live in water) and tortoises (live on land)
  • Bony shell is part of their skeleton
  • Toothless, but jaws have sharp edges
  • Are almost deaf, but sense of smell is well-developed.
class reptilia lizards
CLASS REPTILIA: Lizards
  • Lizards are covered in scales & shed their skin periodically
  • They have moveable eyelids & an ear opening
  • Most are carnivores
class reptilia snakes
CLASS REPTILIA: Snakes
  • Are covered with scales, smooth skin
  • Eyes are always open (no eyelids)
  • A transparent scale protects the eye
  • All are carnivores
class reptilia41
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Snakes swallow their prey whole by unhinging their upper & lower jaws from each other.
  • Their teeth slant backward to hold their prey & prevent it from escaping.
class reptilia42
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Very few species of snakes are poisonous (only 30% are).
  • Poison works in 2 ways:
  • Rattlesnakes, copperheads & cottonmouths: Venom affects the circulatory system causing blood clots & the destruction of capillaries
class reptilia43
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Cobras, sea snakes and coral snakes: Venom affects the nervous system and causes paralysis in its’ victims

Coral snake

class reptilia crocodilians
CLASS REPTILIA: Crocodilians
  • Crocodiles have long, slender snouts and are more aggressive
  • Their teeth show when their mouth is closed

Crocodile skulls

class reptilia45
CLASS REPTILIA
  • Alligators have shorter, round snouts
class reptilia46
CLASS REPTILIA
  • All crocodilians have nostrils, ear openings and eyes set high atop their head (for floating in the water)
  • Another feature they have in common is that they care for their young
class reptilia47
CLASS REPTILIA

Crocs vs. Gators

class aves49
CLASS AVES
  • Class Aves includes all bird species
  • Birds use feathers for flight & warmth
  • Have hollow bones (pneumatic) which gives them a lightweight skeleton
class aves50
CLASS AVES
  • Birds have a beak, but no teeth
  • They also have an efficient respiratory system and a four-chambered heart
  • Endothermic

Snowy owl

class aves51
CLASS AVES
  • Birds are oviparous (lay eggs) and they care for their young after they hatch
  • They have a keen sense of vision and hearing.
  • Use their oil glands on tail to waterproof their feathers.

Grey heron

class aves52
CLASS AVES
  • Bird feet are covered with scales and some have webbed feet for swimming (think ducks)
  • Feet do not have nerves or blood vessels so they can’t feel cold water

Mallard

class aves53
CLASS AVES
  • Some birds have lost the ability to fly, like penguins & ostriches
  • Birds give birth to an amniotic egg that must be kept warm before it hatches.
class mammalia55
CLASS MAMMALIA
  • Mammals include all animals that have hair, which they may use for insulation, camouflage, defense and sensory functions

Porcupine

class mammalia56
CLASS MAMMALIA
  • Female mammals have mammary glands, which they use to nurse & care for their young.
  • Mammals have diverse and specialized teeth that vary depending on the their diet.

Sloth

class mammalia57
CLASS MAMMALIA
  • Mammals are endothermic
  • They have a 4-chambered heart
  • Use a diaphragm to assist them with breathing.

River otter

slide58

CLASS MAMMALIA

  • Mammals have 3 modes of reproduction depending on what kind of animal they are:
        • Monotremes
        • Marsupials
        • Placentals
class mammalia59
CLASS MAMMALIA

MONOTREMES:

  • Lay eggs (oviparous)
  • Example: platypus
class mammalia60
CLASS MAMMALIA

MARSUPIALS:

  • This group of mammals includes kangaroos, koalas and opossums.

Koala

class mammalia61
CLASS MAMMALIA
  • Gestation period is very short.
  • Newborns are born blind, helpless and small.
  • Must climb into and complete develop-ment in their mother’s pouch.
class mammalia62
CLASS MAMMALIA

PLACENTALS:

  • Placental offspring stay in the uterus until development is complete.
  • They receive nourishment via the placenta.
class mammalia63
CLASS MAMMALIA
  • The gestation of placentals is long
  • Most mammals are placental
class mammalia levels of classification
CLASS MAMMALIALevels of Classification
  • Kingdom
    • Phylum
      • Class
        • Order
          • Family
          • Genus
          • Species
class mammalia orders of mammals
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Rodentia:

  • Mice, rats, squirrels, porcupines & guinea pigs

Order Chiroptera:

  • Bats

Order Insectivora:

  • Shrews, moles and hedgehogs
class mammalia orders of mammals66
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Carnivora:

  • Bears, wolves, lions, skunks,

raccoons

Order Primates:

  • Monkeys, apes, humans

Order Artiodactyla:

  • Pigs, camels, deer, cattle, sheep
class mammalia orders of mammals67
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Cetacea:

  • Whales and dolphins

Order Lagomorpha:

  • Rabbits and hares

Order Pinnipedia:

  • Seals, sea lions, walruses
class mammalia orders of mammals68
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Edentata:

  • Anteaters, armadillos

Order Macroscelidea:

  • Elephant shrews

Order Perissodactyla:

  • Horses and zebras
class mammalia orders of mammals69
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Scandentia:

  • Tree shrews

Order Pholidota:

  • Pangolins

Order Hyracoidea:

  • Hyraxes
class mammalia orders of mammals70
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Sirenia:

  • Manatees and dugongs

Order Proboscidea:

  • Elephants
class mammalia orders of mammals71
CLASS MAMMALIAOrders of Mammals

Order Dermoptera:

  • Flying lemurs

Order Tubulidentata:

  • Aardvarks