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Main Individuals

Main Individuals. OF AP PSYCH Part 1. History and Approaches. 1) Greek Philosophers. - First to speculate on the nature of the mind and the concept of dualism. 2) Rene Descartes. - The mind is not observable and not subject to natural laws

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Main Individuals

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  1. Main Individuals OF AP PSYCH Part 1

  2. History and Approaches

  3. 1) Greek Philosophers - First to speculate on the nature of the mind and the concept of dualism

  4. 2) Rene Descartes - The mind is not observable and not subject to natural laws -The mind of controls the body, while the body provides the mind with sensory input

  5. 3) John Locke -Began the school of thought known as empiricism (acquisition of truth through observations) - Used the Term Tabula Rasa (blank slate) which means all knowledge is gained through experience

  6. 4) Thomas Hobbes -Only things that exist are matter and energy -Theories influenced the school of thought known as behaviorism

  7. 5) Wilhelm Wundt -Founder of the Science of Psychology -Opened first laboratory to study consciousness

  8. 6) Edward Titchener - First U.S. Psychologist - Theory known as Structuralism, understanding the smallest parts of the mind will give greater understanding of the greater structure of the mind

  9. 7. Mary Whiton Calkins - 1st women to become President of the American Psychological Association

  10. 8. Dorothea Dix -American activist that lobbied for the rights of the mentally ill and led to the establishment of state-run mental institutions

  11. 9. Stanley G. Hall -First President of the American Psychological Association

  12. 10. Francis Sumner -First African American to receive a Ph.D. in Psychology

  13. 11. Beverly Inez Prossner -First African American female to receive a Ph.D. in Psychology

  14. Biological Basis of Behavior

  15. 12) Charles Darwin -Theory of Natural Selection -Evolutionary theory sets the stage by establishing behavior as observable and therefore subject to scientific scrutiny

  16. 13) Paul Broca -Researched areas in the brain associated with the ability to speak (frontal area of the left hemisphere of the brain) - Section of the brain renamed Broca’s area

  17. 14) Carl Wernicke -Researched the area of the brain associated with the ability to comprehend speech (rear area of the left temporal lobe) - Section of the brain named Wernicke’s Brain

  18. 15) Roger Sperry -Researched that the two hemispheres of the brain can operate independently of each other -Split-Brain Research

  19. 16) Michael Gazzaniga - Leading researcher in cognitive neuroscience

  20. Sensation and Perception

  21. 17) Young-Helmholtz Theory - Researched humans ability to see color -Theory that cones in the retina are activated by light waves associated with blue, red and green (all other colors are a blend of the three)

  22. 18) Ernst Weber - Weber’s Law, which states the greater the magnitude of the stimulus the larger the difference must be to be noticed • Ex: For a 20 pound bowling ball, it needs to be a huge weight change rather than a small weight change to be noticed

  23. 19) Gustav Fechner -Founder of Psychophysics (relationship between stimulus and sensation)

  24. 20) David Hubel/TorstenWeisel -Discoveries in the field of information processing in the visual system

  25. States of Consciousness

  26. 22) Sigmund Freud -Psychoanalytic Approach -Conscious Mind vs. Unconscious Mind -Resolution of unconscious conflicts through uncovering repressed memories

  27. 23) William Dement - Theory known as REM rebound, REM sleep increases the more humans are deprived of sleep

  28. 24) William James -School of Thought known as Functionalism, Understand how the mind fulfills its purpose

  29. 25) Aserinsky/Kleitman -Researchers that studied REM sleep, discovered eyes move more vigorously during REM sleep

  30. 26) Elisabeth Kubler-Ross -Identified the stages that people tend to come to terms with dying (Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance)

  31. 27) Stephen La Berge • Leading researcher in the scientific study of lucid dreaming

  32. 28) Ernest Hilgard -Researcher in the field of hypnosis

  33. Learning

  34. 29) Ivan Pavlov -Behavoralist Approach -Landmark experiment (Pavlov’s Dog Experiment), identified the aspects of Classical Conditioning

  35. 30) John Watson - Behavoralist Approach -Applied Classical Conditioning theories to humans (Little Albert Experiment)

  36. 31) John Garcia -Studied form of classical conditioning known as conditioned taste aversion -Animals are biologically conditioned to associate illness with foul smelling/looking food

  37. 32) B.F. Skinner - Behavoralist Approach - Developed the theories of Operant Conditioning (Skinner Box)

  38. 33) Albert Bandura -Theory of Social Learning, or observational learning (Bobo Doll Experiment)

  39. 34) Donald Hebb -Human Learning takes place by neurons forming new connections with one another or by strengthening ones that already exist

  40. 35) Eric Kandel -Neuroscientist that researched long-term potentiation(LTP), which is that learning takes place at the neural level

  41. 36) Edward Tolman -Experiments that researched the concept of Latent Learning, or learning that is not outwardly expressed until the situation arises -Cognitive component of learning

  42. 37) Robert Rescorla - Elementary learning processing

  43. 38) Edward Thorndike -Theory of connectionism (neural networks) and helped lay the scientific foundation for Modern Educational Psychology

  44. Cognition

  45. 39) George Sperling -Experiments with short-term visual memory, or Iconic memory

  46. 40) Noam Chomsky - Concept of an innate language acquisition device , which helps in the development of language in children

  47. 41) Benjamin Lee Whorf & Edward Lee Sapir -Theory of Linguistic Relativity, in which speakers of different languages develop different cognitive systems as a result of their differences in language and culture

  48. 42) Wolfgang Kohler -Experiments addressing the concept of insight, sudden understanding of a problem or problem solving ability -Thinking “outside the box”

  49. 105) Max Wertheimer • One of the Founding Fathers of Gestalt Psychology

  50. 43) Hermann Ebbinghaus -Experimental study of memory and developed the learning curve (learned knowledge graph)

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