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Chapter 11: The Civil War

Chapter 11: The Civil War

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Chapter 11: The Civil War

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  1. Chapter 11: The Civil War

  2. Section 1: The Civil War Begins

  3. Anaconda Plan • Blockade Southern ports – no exporting cotton or importing manufactured goods • Split Confederacy in 2 by using the Mississippi River • Capture Richmond, VA

  4. Bull Run • Inexperienced generals • Stonewall Jackson • Union had upper hand until Confederate reinforcement arrived • Union retreated • Led to confidence in the South

  5. Important Union Generals • George McClellan (Head General) • Very cautious • Perfect situations • Lincoln wanted to “borrow McClellan’s army if the general wasn’t going to use it.” • Ulysses S. Grant – “Unconditional Surrender” Grant • Fort Henry & Donelson • Shiloh • David Farragut • Seized New Orleans (largest seaport)

  6. Important Confederate Generals • Robert E. Lee – lead General • Opposed secession and freed his slaves

  7. Shiloh • Grants mistakes • No trenches, guards or patrols • Caught off guard: Confederates came by woods • Union was losing – Grant recouped & was reinforced • South retreated • Over 25,000 casualties • Effects on warfare: scout the area, did trenched & build forts

  8. “On to Richmond!” • Known as the “Seven Days’ Battle” • McClellan marched down the Potomac River on the way to Richmond • Robert E. Lee moved against McClellan to save Richmond • Tactics unnerved McClellan who backed away

  9. Antietam • McClellan’s Army found Lee’s army order in a meadow • Revealed that Lee and Jackson’s army were separated • September 17, 1862 • McClellan attacked Lee • Lee retreated • McClellan did not pursue because he was too cautious • Bloodiest battle in the war 26,000 • McClellan was fired 11/7/1862

  10. Section 2: The Politics of War

  11. Britain Remains Neutral • No longer depended on South for cotton rather on the North for wheat and corn • Traded ships with South • At wars end, the US believed Britain owed money for ships sunk • 1861 – South sent 2 diplomats on a 2nd attempt to gain British support -- diplomats were arrested • Britain demanded their freedom • US did – why?

  12. Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln believed the federal government did not have the power to abolish slavery where it already existed GOAL: SAVE THE UNION

  13. “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that…”

  14. Emancipation Proclamation • All slaves behind Confederate lines where free • Did not apply to Union states where slavery was legal • Freed blacks were able to enlist in the Union Army • Symbolic gesture – Fight to free slaves • Reaction: • Democrats claimed it would anger the south – it did • Became a war to the death

  15. Problems Faced • Disloyalty and dissent • Habeas corpus was suspended • Copperheads • Conscription - draft • South: • white men ages 17 – 50 • “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight” • North • Men from 20 – 45 for three years • Hire substitutes or page $300 to avoid draft • Offer of bounties

  16. New York Draft Riots • The poor were in slums with disease • Drafted to fight and free slave = slaves taking their jobs • 2/3 were Irish • Lynched 11 • Ruined homes & draft offices

  17. Section 3: Life During Wartime

  18. African-Americans • 1862 – serve in the military • 10% of the Union Army • Earned less then white soldiers – then equal • Killed if caught • Many left for North • Sabotaged farms or led uprisings

  19. Southern Economy • Soldiers faced food shortage • Drain of manpower into the army • Union occupation of farms • Loss of slaves • Blockade created shortages of salt, coffee, nails, sugar, needles and medicine

  20. Northern Economy • Industry boomed to keep up with war demand • Wages were NOT good • Women replaced men in the workforce • Established temporary national income tax

  21. Soldiers • Hygiene was poor • Lice, dysentery and diarrhea • Poor food rations

  22. Prisons • Andersonville, GA – Confederate camp • Overcrowded with the North refused to return African-American soldiers • No shelter • Drank from streams/sewer • Henry Wirz – camp commander • Northern camps were cold and soldiers malnourished

  23. Section 4: The North Takes Charge

  24. The Road to Gettysburg • South had been successful at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville • “Stonewall” Jackson shot and later died • South invaded the North • Looking for supplies • Shoe factory in Gettysburg

  25. Gettysburg • Most decisive battle of the war • Union troops took defensive position • Lead by Gen. George Meade

  26. Gettysburg • 3-day battle • 51,000 casualties • South would never recover

  27. Vicksburg • Confederate soldiers were desperate • Surrendered to Grant on July 4 • Union had complete control of the Mississippi

  28. Gettysburg Address • Dedication to cemetery • Delivered by Lincoln • Helped people realize the US is a country, not a collection of states

  29. Southern Morale • Farmers resented tax • Soldiers deserted • Some fought for Union • Fighting within government

  30. Changes in US Army • Gen. Grant becomes commander of Union Army • Sherman commands the Mississippi • Total war – Military and civilians • Made weapons, transported goods & grew food • Destroy the will of the people = destroy the Confederacy

  31. Grant & Lee in VA • Grant continued to attack Lee • North had the advantage because it has more people to replace the dead • “Whatever happens, there will be no turning back”

  32. Sherman’s March • Sherman wanted to take out transportation in Atlanta • He was surrounded by Confederate army • Led path of destruction and lived off of the land • Burned most of Atlanta • Southerners would be “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.”

  33. Followed by 25,000 slaves • Continued through SC • In NC, gave food and supplies • the end was near

  34. Election of 1864 • Democrats elected McClellan • Angry at length of war • Bitter for being fired • Promise immediate armistice • Radical Republicans did not support Lincoln’s plans to readmit the Confederates

  35. Election of 1864 • Lincoln – “I’m going to be beaten…unless some changes take place…” • Lincoln won with 55%

  36. Surrender at Appomattox • Davis abandoned and burned capital • Lee surrendered to Grant • Generous terms for readmittance into the Union

  37. Section 5: The Legacy of the War

  38. Changes • Increased federal governments political power • Economic gap between N & S

  39. Cost of War • 620,000 died • 535,000 wounded • 1 soldier killed for every 4 slaves freed • Many amputees • $20 Billion