1 / 41

Chapter 11: The Civil War

Chapter 11: The Civil War. Section 1: The Civil War Begins. Anaconda Plan. Blockade Southern ports – no exporting cotton or importing manufactured goods. Split Confederacy in 2 by using the Mississippi River Capture Richmond, VA. Bull Run. Inexperienced generals Stonewall Jackson

Download Presentation

Chapter 11: The Civil War

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 11: The Civil War

  2. Section 1: The Civil War Begins

  3. Anaconda Plan • Blockade Southern ports – no exporting cotton or importing manufactured goods • Split Confederacy in 2 by using the Mississippi River • Capture Richmond, VA

  4. Bull Run • Inexperienced generals • Stonewall Jackson • Union had upper hand until Confederate reinforcement arrived • Union retreated • Led to confidence in the South

  5. Important Union Generals • George McClellan (Head General) • Very cautious • Perfect situations • Lincoln wanted to “borrow McClellan’s army if the general wasn’t going to use it.” • Ulysses S. Grant – “Unconditional Surrender” Grant • Fort Henry & Donelson • Shiloh • David Farragut • Seized New Orleans (largest seaport)

  6. Important Confederate Generals • Robert E. Lee – lead General • Opposed secession and freed his slaves

  7. Shiloh • Grants mistakes • No trenches, guards or patrols • Caught off guard: Confederates came by woods • Union was losing – Grant recouped & was reinforced • South retreated • Over 25,000 casualties • Effects on warfare: scout the area, did trenched & build forts

  8. “On to Richmond!” • Known as the “Seven Days’ Battle” • McClellan marched down the Potomac River on the way to Richmond • Robert E. Lee moved against McClellan to save Richmond • Tactics unnerved McClellan who backed away

  9. Antietam • McClellan’s Army found Lee’s army order in a meadow • Revealed that Lee and Jackson’s army were separated • September 17, 1862 • McClellan attacked Lee • Lee retreated • McClellan did not pursue because he was too cautious • Bloodiest battle in the war 26,000 • McClellan was fired 11/7/1862

  10. Section 2: The Politics of War

  11. Britain Remains Neutral • No longer depended on South for cotton rather on the North for wheat and corn • Traded ships with South • At wars end, the US believed Britain owed money for ships sunk • 1861 – South sent 2 diplomats on a 2nd attempt to gain British support -- diplomats were arrested • Britain demanded their freedom • US did – why?

  12. Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln believed the federal government did not have the power to abolish slavery where it already existed GOAL: SAVE THE UNION

  13. “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that…”

  14. Emancipation Proclamation • All slaves behind Confederate lines where free • Did not apply to Union states where slavery was legal • Freed blacks were able to enlist in the Union Army • Symbolic gesture – Fight to free slaves • Reaction: • Democrats claimed it would anger the south – it did • Became a war to the death

  15. Problems Faced • Disloyalty and dissent • Habeas corpus was suspended • Copperheads • Conscription - draft • South: • white men ages 17 – 50 • “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight” • North • Men from 20 – 45 for three years • Hire substitutes or page $300 to avoid draft • Offer of bounties

  16. New York Draft Riots • The poor were in slums with disease • Drafted to fight and free slave = slaves taking their jobs • 2/3 were Irish • Lynched 11 • Ruined homes & draft offices

  17. Section 3: Life During Wartime

  18. African-Americans • 1862 – serve in the military • 10% of the Union Army • Earned less then white soldiers – then equal • Killed if caught • Many left for North • Sabotaged farms or led uprisings

  19. Southern Economy • Soldiers faced food shortage • Drain of manpower into the army • Union occupation of farms • Loss of slaves • Blockade created shortages of salt, coffee, nails, sugar, needles and medicine

  20. Northern Economy • Industry boomed to keep up with war demand • Wages were NOT good • Women replaced men in the workforce • Established temporary national income tax

  21. Soldiers • Hygiene was poor • Lice, dysentery and diarrhea • Poor food rations

  22. Prisons • Andersonville, GA – Confederate camp • Overcrowded with the North refused to return African-American soldiers • No shelter • Drank from streams/sewer • Henry Wirz – camp commander • Northern camps were cold and soldiers malnourished

  23. Section 4: The North Takes Charge

  24. The Road to Gettysburg • South had been successful at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville • “Stonewall” Jackson shot and later died • South invaded the North • Looking for supplies • Shoe factory in Gettysburg

  25. Gettysburg • Most decisive battle of the war • Union troops took defensive position • Lead by Gen. George Meade

  26. Gettysburg • 3-day battle • 51,000 casualties • South would never recover

  27. Vicksburg • Confederate soldiers were desperate • Surrendered to Grant on July 4 • Union had complete control of the Mississippi

  28. Gettysburg Address • Dedication to cemetery • Delivered by Lincoln • Helped people realize the US is a country, not a collection of states

  29. Southern Morale • Farmers resented tax • Soldiers deserted • Some fought for Union • Fighting within government

  30. Changes in US Army • Gen. Grant becomes commander of Union Army • Sherman commands the Mississippi • Total war – Military and civilians • Made weapons, transported goods & grew food • Destroy the will of the people = destroy the Confederacy

  31. Grant & Lee in VA • Grant continued to attack Lee • North had the advantage because it has more people to replace the dead • “Whatever happens, there will be no turning back”

  32. Sherman’s March • Sherman wanted to take out transportation in Atlanta • He was surrounded by Confederate army • Led path of destruction and lived off of the land • Burned most of Atlanta • Southerners would be “so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it.”

  33. Followed by 25,000 slaves • Continued through SC • In NC, gave food and supplies • the end was near

  34. Election of 1864 • Democrats elected McClellan • Angry at length of war • Bitter for being fired • Promise immediate armistice • Radical Republicans did not support Lincoln’s plans to readmit the Confederates

  35. Election of 1864 • Lincoln – “I’m going to be beaten…unless some changes take place…” • Lincoln won with 55%

  36. Surrender at Appomattox • Davis abandoned and burned capital • Lee surrendered to Grant • Generous terms for readmittance into the Union

  37. Section 5: The Legacy of the War

  38. Changes • Increased federal governments political power • Economic gap between N & S

  39. Cost of War • 620,000 died • 535,000 wounded • 1 soldier killed for every 4 slaves freed • Many amputees • $20 Billion

More Related