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Allied Maritime Command. Maritime Security at a Crossroads: Operationalising the Allied Maritime Strategy. Professor James Henry Bergeron Chief Political Advisor Allied Maritime Command (comments personal). Agenda. MarCom – Who we are Operations OCEAN SHIELD ACTIVE ENDEAVOUR

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Allied Maritime Command

Maritime Security at a Crossroads:

Operationalising the Allied Maritime Strategy

Professor James Henry Bergeron

Chief Political Advisor

Allied Maritime Command

(comments personal)

  • MarCom – Who we are
  • Operations
  • Revitalisation of NATO’s maritime forces
  • Questions and Discussion
the alliance maritime strategy
The Alliance Maritime Strategy
  • Deterrence and Collective Defence
  • Crisis Management
  • Cooperative Security, Outreach and Partnership
  • Maritime Security
  • Signed in 2011 needs to be fully implemented
  • Maritime Security is the bedrock on which all AMS tasks are achieved.
marcom roles and responsibilities
MarCom Roles and Responsibilities

“ HQ MARCOM is responsible for maritime competency and acts as NATO's principal maritime advisor. It maintains comprehensive situational awareness throughout the maritime environment, and is ready to command a maritime heavy SJO or act as the Maritime Component (MCC) to support up to a MJO+.”


Maritime NATO 2014

  • Reform of Maritime Security Operations: Extension/Reform of Operation Active Endeavour and Ocean Shield: Expand beyond CT and CP; greater reliance on Associated Support
  • Revitalisation of NATO’s Standing Naval Forces; better training, varied missions; regional exercises and engagement; a full spectrum Task Force structure? (MCM, C4ISR, Interoperability)
  • Explore new affiliations with existing CTFs as follow-on maritime forces (potential on-call Maritime Contingency Force)
  • Maintaining Strategic Engagement and Situational Awareness on the Seas
  • Enhanced maritime engagement with Partners
  • Training and Exercise: making a success of CFI at Sea
  • Maintain NATO-EU cooperation in maritime security; explore ways to deepen it. EUMSS-AMS discussion?
reforming op active endeavour
  • Mission
    • Art 5 Response to 9/11 to counter the threat of maritime terrorist activities – CT in a single operational environment?
    • Maritime Situational Awareness and engagement is key aspect - 5 partners (Russia, Morocco, Israel, Georgia, Ukraine)
    • 13 yrs old – regional relevance has waned – seen as narrow when placed alongside growing security challenges of the Med region - Mission Review debate ongoing.
  • Intent
    • Move to a Network Operation less reliant on military forces
    • Respond to regional concerns and security challenges by broadening operation but with approvals clearly defined.
    • Ensure a Joint approach with other environments and partners.
  • End state
    • Maintain Connectivity through “regional network”.
    • Ensure presence in Mediterranean.
    • Reinvigorate Partnerships with Med Dialogue/MOU nations.

Counter Piracy Operations

  • Long history of Piracy off the Horn of Africa
  • International response to piracy in 2008
  • Coincide with WFP tasking into Somalia
  • EU Operation ATALANTA launched end of 2008
  • NATO and Combined Maritime Forces (CMF) engaged in 2009
  • ‘Big 3’ and Independent Deployers: Unity of Effort
piracy incident rate
Piracy Incident Rate

Incidents - 12 Month Moving Average

Military Containment

IRTC Military


Dhows in Indian Ocean Piracy

Merchant Armed Protection

Pre-crisis situation restored

GoA Piracy


reforming op ocean shield
  • Mission
    • Coordinate NATO’s contribution with the International community – CMF, EUNAVFOR, Independent deployers via SHADE
    • Increase regional maritime security capacity within means
    • Mandate now extended to end of 2016
  • Intent
    • Thorough overhaul of OPLAN now underway
    • Broaden Regional Engagement within a Focused Presence approach
    • Desired Effect
    • Indian Ocean crucial area to the Alliance. Maintains forward presence in an unstable area
    • Less fixation with low end operations – but able to respond should piracy re-emerge
    • Show NATO relevance to the region and to the Alliance

Impact of the Ukraine Crisis?

  • Deep change in NATO-Russian relations (or reset to 1979); partnership activity stopped.
  • Renewed emphasis on indivisible Alliance security - reassurance of Eastern European allies; reassertion of Alliance capabilities and resolve.
  • Closer defence and security cooperation with Ukraine.
  • The Land has bounded back as a critical conflict domain. (Mali, CAR, now Ukraine).
  • Sharper edge to the ‘from Deployed to Prepared NATO’ idea.
  • Likely to inform all aspects of the Summit, but main outlines will survive
maritime assurance measures
Maritime Assurance Measures
  • Immediate Assurance post-Ukraine Crisis
  • Baltic Presence – SNMCMG1 activation.
  • Mediterranean Focus is priority for SNMGs.
  • Black Sea exercise programme will be maintained.
    • OOS to be maintained, but not with SNMGs
    • Additional forces identified for groups
    • Follow-on Measures
    • Permanent Baltic and Mediterranean presence – more Exercises. Black Sea presence as Council decides.
    • SNF Review – expand the size and capabilities of the groups to IRF standard.
    • Back up deployments with effective STRATCOM.
    • Longer-term Considerations
    • SACEUR Military Strategic posture review:NCS/NFS, Response Forces, Contingency Planning, etc.
    • Impact of Ukraine on the Alliance Maritime Strategy
revitalising nato s naval forces
Revitalising NATO’s Naval Forces
  • 4 Standing Naval Groups represent majority of NATO’s IRF
  • 2 Mine Countermeasures Groups, 2 Naval Groups
  • SNF Challenges
  • 47 year old design – suffered from capability contraction, force flow fatigue leading - excessive demand on too small a force.
  • Growing disconnect between tasking: Operations vs Contingency vs Training: What is the right balance?
  • Fit for 21st Century NRF? Littoral challenges v blue-water posture.
  • Reforms being considered:
  • Inject broader capabilities within all groups
    • Reform operations
    • Adjust schedule, more exercises, inject variety;
    • Champion affiliations with national task groups as an on-call contingency force.
  • Fewer exercises – greater mass – concentrate effort.
the littoral 2045 crisis response ha dr
The Littoral 2045: Crisis Response, HA/DR
  • Global population is expected to grow from 7.2Bn to 8.3 – 10.9Bn
  • 70% of that growth will be in the poorest 24 countries
  • 70% Urban, most on the coast, much in shanty-town conditions
  • Urbanisation now at 1.3m / week
  • 280 mega-cities with over 20m inhabitants
  • Sea-levels rise by 0.3 – 0.4m
  • Almost all have access to internet by 2030
  • Maritime Zone