Rights-Based Approach and Equity Re-Focus of UNICEF. By Dr. Festo P. Kavishe , Deputy Regional Director UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok Presented at the UNICEF Meeting on Socio Economic Policies for Child Rights with Equity, Royal Orchid Sheraton & Towers, Bangkok, Thailand, 13 June 2011.
By Dr. Festo P. Kavishe,
Deputy Regional Director UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok
Presented at the UNICEF Meeting on Socio Economic Policies for Child Rights with Equity,
Royal Orchid Sheraton & Towers, Bangkok, Thailand, 13 June 2011
3. Some Concluding Reflections
Defn: Application of an equity-focused approach in the realization of child rights
Scope: All children have an opportunity to survive, develop and reach full potential without discrimination, bias or favoritism. . Focus is on the most marginalized children.
Inequities arise when certain population groups are unfairly or unjustly deprived of basic resources that are available to other groups.
Equity is distinct from equality. Equality requires all to have same resources, while equity requires all to have same opportunity to access same resources.
Concept of equity is universal with social justice as overriding theme
Equity, Inequity and Equality (ref. Equity begins with children by Jan Vandermoortele, forthcoming chapter in book on Child Poverty by Policy Press 2011)
Mathematically Speaking, an Equity-based approach is a sub-set of a Rights-based approach, emphasizing Refocus of the RBA
RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH (The Set)
EQUITY APPROACH (sub-set)
Economic, Social, Cultural & Political context
rights and equity based programmes, policies, legislation etc
technology, learning by doing
Right in Principle
Right in Practice
High potential for accelerating progress towards meeting the MDGs at both national and sub-national levels.
Cost-effective and has high returns on investment towards MDGs, in terms of lives saved per resource spent.
Major challenge: is to scale up the practice, monitor progress and evaluate results with adequate feedback for widening the triple A processes.
Although the EAP region boasts of some of the fastest and historical economic growth rates globally; has been successful in fending of the financial, economic, fuel and food crises and made tremendous progress in the achievement of the MDGs, disparities persist and in many cases have widened.
In Asia Pacific, inequality is increasing and the biggest number of the poor are paradoxically in MIC where progress has been the greatest!
Ratio of richest 20% to poorest 20%
<< Smaller Disparities - - Bigger Disparities>>
Source: World Bank, 2010
Gender (MDG3) as third driver: Gender disparities apparent when children start joining labour market and in political representation
Disparities in secondary education – in order of importance:- 1. by Wealth (purple) 2. by Province (green) 3. Urban/rural (red) 4. Gender (blue)
MDG 6: Disparities in Knowledge of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission During Pregnancy,
% of Women aged 15-49
access to improved sanitation disparities (%)
Goal is to eliminate unfair and avoidable circumstances that deprive certain groups (children) of their rights.
Strategy: seeks to understand and address root /basic causes of inequity to ensure equal opportunity to access resources and services for survival, growth and development (e.g. education, health, WASH, protection).
Methodology: similar to the RBA
Policy Options for different types of disparities (Adapted from Mahesh Patel, Nov 2011
Equity Focused Programming and SRA monitoring model
HR &Equity based Program: Good outcome, good process
Where our programs should be!!
process are here
No program should