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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970. Part I: “Reconstruction and Confrontation”. The Ideological Struggle. Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]. Vs. US & the Western Democracies. Different Ideologies. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race Ideological Competition

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slide3
The Ideological Struggle

Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

Vs.

US & the Western Democracies

different ideologies
Different Ideologies
  • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
  • Arms Race
  • Ideological Competition
  • Bi-Polarization of Europe
slide5
The

“Iron Curtain”

From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

slide6
Truman Doctrine [1947]

Greece, Turkey

The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

The U.S. gave Greece and Turkey $400 million in aid to keep it safe from communism

slide7
Marshall Plan [1948]

“European Recovery Program”

George Marshall

The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move “is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.”

slide10
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952: Greece & Turkey
  • 1955: West Germany
  • 1983: Spain
slide11
Warsaw Pact (1955)

U. S. S. R.

Albania

Bulgaria

Czechoslovakia

East Germany

Hungary

Poland

Romania

slide12
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev

About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

De-Stalinization Program

de stalinization
De-Stalinization
  • Ended forced labor
  • Khrushchev denounced dictatorial rule
  • 1956-1961Stalin’s name removed from cities, buildings, projects
  • Stalin’s body removed from Lenin’s tomb
slide15
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956

Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister

Removed state controls on speech

Wanted free elections, no Warsaw Pact

hungary
Hungary
  • 1945-1955, 2000 “enemies” executed
  • Over 300,000 purged from intellectual, other leadership roles
  • 100,000 in labor camps
  • 1956: Nagy removed by Soviets
  • Major show of force by Soviet army
  • 250,000 flee Hungary, repression
slide17
Sputnik I (1957)

The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

soviet space advances
Soviet Space Advances
  • 1957: Laika
  • First death in space
slide19
Nixon-Khrushchev“Kitchen Debate”(1959)

“Things that matter, instead of luxury.”

slide20
1960

Surveillance, shot down

Well-planned by US but failed

PR coup by Soviets

2 weeks before East/West summit

U-2 Spy Incident (1960)

slide23
Informal discussion

Bay of Pigs, disaster for US

Kennedy must act as if the US is at a disadvantage

1961

slide26
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Show film clip: “Cuban Missile Crisis”

slide27
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

slide28
Ich bin ein Berliner!(1963)

President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GK907TwM7q0

slide29
“Prague Spring” (1968)

Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4WdrbahQqs&feature=related

slide31
4thFrench Republic: 1945-1958
  • Democratic, but politically unstable
  • Universal suffrage.
  • Weak President; powerful legislature
  • Many political parties [coalition governments]
  • Indochina.
  • Suez War.
  • Algerian Crisis.
slide32
5thFrench Republic (1958-Present)
  • Powerful President.* first: Charles DeGaulle
  • Weak Cabinet
  • Weakened legislature.
  • Separation of powers.
slide34
Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951
  • Limited socialist program[modern welfare state].
  • Nationalization of industry
  • Socialized medicine
slide35
Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951
  • Britain is in a big debt
  • The beginning of the end of the British Empire.
    • India – 1947
    • Palestine – 1948
slide36
Churchill Returns: 1951-1955

He never tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.

slide37
The Federated Republicof Germany
  • Created in 1949
  • Limited army, US will protect
  • Konrad Adenauer
    • Pro-Western foreign policy.
    • German “economic miracle.”
slide38
Italy After WW II

Coalition governments [short and unstable!]

slide40
European Economic Integration
  • 1947  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]
slide41
European Economic Integration
  • 1952  European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC].
    • “Inner Six”
    • Coal and steel
slide42
European Economic Integration
  • 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]
slide43
European Economic Integration
  • 4. 1957  European Economic Community [EEC]
    • Created a larger free trade area, or customs union.
slide44
European Economic Integration
  • 5. 1967  combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC].
    • HQ  Brussels.
    • European Parliament.
slide45
European Economic Integration
  • 6. 1991-92  Maastricht Agreements
    • European Union [EU] created from the EC.
      • One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!
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