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The Reformation. Division in the Catholic Church. Heresy in the Renaissance. John Wyclif : English Believed that papal authority was corrupt Claimed Bible as sole authority Translated the Bible into the vernacular Creation of the Lollards John Hus: Czech

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the reformation

The Reformation

Division in the Catholic Church

heresy in the renaissance
Heresy in the Renaissance
  • John Wyclif: English
    • Believed that papal authority was corrupt
    • Claimed Bible as sole authority
      • Translated the Bible into the vernacular
      • Creation of the Lollards
  • John Hus: Czech
    • Attacked worldliness of the papacy
    • Council of Constance in 1415 burned at the stake even though he promised safety
catholicism in the renaissance
Catholicism in the renaissance
  • Sacrosancta: a general council of the church had authority
  • Frequens: The general council would meet regularly
  • Popes ignored council and claimed sole leadership
    • Julius II :Warrior Pope
    • Nepotism: Calling family lines into the papacy
    • “worldly” helped fuel the renaissance movement
      • Led to distrust of the church along with Great Schism
martin luther history
Martin Luther History
  • Lightning storm converts Luther
  • Practice of Indulgences leads to 95 Theses
    • Johann Tetzel “as soon as the coin in the coffer rings the soul from purgatory springs”
  • Diet of Worms called by Charles V
    • Quote 379
martin luther history cont
Martin Luther History cont.
  • Luther goes into hiding with the help of some nobles
  • Translates the Bible into the vernacular which spreads thanks to Guttenberg Press
  • Peasants war: Peasants revolt during the confusion of the Reformation but Luther says “smite, slay and stab” the peasants
    • Needed support of the nobles
martin luther doctrine
Martin Luther Doctrine
  • Justification of Faith
    • De-emphasis on works (sacraments/ordinances)
    • Baptism kept
    • Lords Supper altered
  • Authority of the Church found through the Bible
  • Denounces clerical celibacy
  • Priesthood of all believers
  • Mass with song (any preach)
zwinglian reform
Zwinglian Reform
  • Swiss: Ulrich Zwingli cut up, burned, spread around
  • State supervises the church
  • Whitewashed the churches and made plain
  • No images (veneration of saints)
  • Mass replaced with scripture reading and prayer
  • No music
  • Lords supper simply symbolic of sacrifice
anabaptists doctrine
Anabaptists doctrine
  • Adult baptism so that individuals can choose
  • Strict democracy of leadership (voted on a minister)
  • Resort to simple Christian life
  • Separation of church and state
  • Lords Supper in remembrance
  • Did not participate in politics/army
  • Different groups
    • In northern Germany John Leiden makes militant millenarians
    • Mennonites after Menno more traditional like Amish
king henry viii history
King Henry VIII History
  • King married to Catherine of Aragon
    • Needs a male heir
    • Girlfriend Ann Boleyn
  • Sends Cardinal Wolsey to Pope Clement VII but denied annulment
    • Charles V (nephew of Catherine) controlled the papacy as king of Spain and Holy Roman empire
    • Solution make a church
anglican doctrine
Anglican Doctrine
  • King declares himself “defender of the faith” (Act of Supremacy)
    • Boleyn has a baby girl (Elizabeth)
  • Treason Act: Have to be Anglican
  • Book of common prayer
  • Similar to Catholicism for most part
calvinism doctrine
Calvinism Doctrine
  • Intellectual reformer
  • Salvation through Grace
  • Predestination
  • Elects
  • Last Supper like Luther
  • Baptism as a symbol
  • Created Geneva
    • The Consistory kept people in check
    • Inspired John Knox in Scotland (Presbyterian)
northern humanists
Northern Humanists
  • Desiderious Erasmus:
    • Use Christianity as a “guiding philosophy for daily life rather than the system of dogmatic beliefs” . . . ?
    • Inner-piety and de-emphasis on works
    • Praise and Folly doc.
    • Education of Christian doc could restore society
  • Thomas More:
    • Writes the Utopia and the origins of socialism
catholics strike back
Catholics strike back
  • Ignatius Loyola:
    • Saved from a deadly battle wound devotes life to Catholic Church
    • Creates the “Society of Jesus”
      • Jesuit missionaries purpose 1) Study 2)Spread gospel 3)fight Protestantism
    • Council of Trent 1542
      • Officially begins the Counter Reformation
      • Council of the papacy to
        • Accept Jesuit order
        • Prove Catholicism
        • Disprove Protestantism
politics during the reformation
Politics during the Reformation
  • France: Valois kings (Francis I) gains assistance by Pope but Italy is sacked by Charles V
  • Ottoman empire: under Suleiman the Magnificent takes Balkans, North Africa and Constantinople
charles v tries to unite
Charles V tries to Unite
  • Charles V: One of the Habsburg heirs. Controlled HRE, Spain, Italy and repulsed the Ottomans
    • Constantly trying to do too much
      • SchmalkaldicLeague (Lutherans) + Catholic French king Henry II
      • Habsburg-Valois Wars
      • Peace of Augsburg 1555 and retires
        • Claims that Protestants and Catholics held equal legal standing and ruler of HRE could determine the religion of the state
problems in france
Problems in France
  • Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre: pic 400
    • Supposed to have a wedding between Navarre and Valois King Charles IX
    • Henry of Guise tells King to take out Huguenots
    • 3 days 3000 Huguenots killed but Henry Navarre survives
    • Henry of Guise gets Spain to help him take throne
      • “Holy League” forms to assist a “true” Catholic
three henrys and nantes
Three Henrys and Nantes
  • Henry III (king), Henry duke of Guise (super Catholic), and Henry of Navarre (Flip flopper) all duke it out in the Battle of Three Henries in 1588-89
    • Henry III assassinates Henry of Guise and gets help from Henry of Navarre to crush “Holy Catholic League”
    • Angered Monk kills Henry III for using a protestant
    • Henry of Navarre made new king but flips to Catholicism as a polotique
    • Edict of Nantes: Grants freedom of religion in France 1598
philip ii replaces charles v
Philip II replaces Charles V
  • Philip “the most Catholic King”
    • Tried to do too much. . . Like his dad
      • “if God used the Escorial to deliver my death sentence I would be immortal”
      • Constantly at war which crushed his economy
        • Muslims in Mediterranean, Dutch “sea beggars”, William of Orange and Union of Utrecht form Dutch Republic, Queen Elizabeth
      • Involvement in Americas and gain of Silver/Gold causes inflation
queen elizabeth and religion
Queen Elizabeth and Religion
  • After Bloody Mary dies in 1558 Elizabeth is made queen
  • A politique, she keeps England protestant but mild and more accepting
  • Act of Supremacy
elizabeth and her enemies
Elizabeth and her enemies
  • Mary Queen of Scotts (catholic cousin) tries to kill Elizabeth a few times so is beheaded
  • Puritans: Calvinist Anglicans. . . Eventually leave for America
  • Spain: Sir Francis Drake of England plundered Spanish ships.
    • Aids the Netherlands so Philip steps in
    • Spanish Armada crushed by England