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  1. “Communication lies at the heart of research. It is as vital for research as the actual investigation itself, for research cannot properly claim that name until it has been scrutinized and accepted by colleagues” (Meadows, 1998) “To gain acceptance, establishment mores must be followed... For new researchers, success with conventional formats is a compulsory rite of passage”. (Thody, 2006) Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  2. Rites of Passage: from Novice to Biochemist Experiences of Integration of Language and Content Heather Kannasmaa and Suzy McAnsh, Language Centre, University of Oulu Lloyd Ruddock, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu

  3. OUR CASE Language Centre Department of Biochemistry course complex for students in fourth term Presentation Skills, 1 credit Protein Chemistry, 8 credits Biochemical Methods II, 8 credits Scientific Writing, 2 credits January 2007 June 2007 Products of English courses are shared products with PROTEIN CHEMISTRY course, providing support for later BIOCHEMICAL METHODS Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  4. Forces shaping the course • Bologna Process • Evolution of the view of language in integration of language and content • Growing emphasis on sociocultural perspectives Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  5. SHAPING FORCE 1 Bologna Process Focus on • clearly defined learning objectives • highly visible relevance to future needs • principles of effective time management critical academic thinking field-specific knowledge research skills professional skills an ability to combine and apply skills to produce outcomes and create new knowledge problem-solving skills communication and social skills lifelong learning an ability to combine and apply skills to produce outcomes and create new knowledge

  6. SHAPING FORCE 2 Evolution of view of language in language - content integration • LANGUAGE AS A RESOURCE FOR PARTICIPATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY • Advantages: • language and content skills develop together through participation in a social context • implies that learner is engaged in advancement of social practice • language and content cannot be separated • CONDUIT METAPHOR • language helps learners to access the subject. Problems: • implies that if language is learned, content is straightforward • implies that language should be learned before content • both language and content viewed as a static body of knowledge external to learner focus on model of teaching: theme-based / sheltered / adjunct Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  7. SHAPING FORCE 3 Growing emphasis on sociocultural perspectives “learning as increasing participation in communities of practice” (Lave and Wenger, 1991) “Writers exploit the linguistic and cultural resources available to them to define their relationship to the world they live in”(Vollmer, 2002) “We cannot separate the work of science from our view of the praxis by which the work is realised” (Bazerman, 1988) Communication of research: contextually situated social and cultural practice notion of situated learning representation of self (positioning) views of knowledge shaping Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  8. 1 2 Evolution of view of language in integration of language and content Bologna process As a member of a community of practice, the learner combines and applies language and content skills to advance society (including self) and create new outcomes Growing emphasis on sociological perspectives 3 Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  9. Practical application of the “shaping forces” • set-up of Scientific Writing module • three examples from this module Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  10. Set-up of Scientific Writing module • Aims: • to develop skills for writing a research article for publication • Course product: • protein chemistry research article (using authentic data collected by the content teacher) • Course events and tasks • 6 lectures (sections of research article) • compilation and analysis of mini-corpus • independent write-up of research article in several versions • peer and teacher feedback Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  11. Triangulation of perspectives on community practices findings from linguistic research construction of own text comment from content expert consolidation by reference to own corpus Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  12. Application of “shaping forces” Example 1: genre awareness • Kanoksilapatham (2005) - 3 moves: • i) ANNOUNCING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD (100%) • step 1: claiming the centrality of the topic • step 2: making topic generalisations • step 3: reviewing previous research (invariably present in biochem) • ii) INDICATING A GAP (67%) • step 1: indicating a gap • step 2: raising a question • iii) INTRODUCING THE PRESENT STUDY (100%) • step 1: stating purpose(s) • step 2: describing procedures • step 3: presenting findings Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  13. MOVE 1 IMPORTANCE OF FIELD step 1: claiming centrality EXAMPLE INTRODUCTION IMPORTANCE OF FIELD step 2: generalisations IMPORTANCE OF FIELD step 3: review of previous research MOVE 2 INDICATING GAP step 1: indicating gap MOVE 3 PRESENT STUDY step 1: stating purpose PRESENT STUDY step 3: findings Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  14. Application of “shaping forces” Example 2: author presence in reporting of findings “The points at which writers choose to announce their presence in the discourse are those where they are best able to promote themselves and their individual contributions”. (Hyland, 2001) “A knowledge of the strategic use of personal pronouns is of great value to journal article writers. They must know… how to emphasize their personal contributions to their field of research …”. (Kuo, 1999) Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  15. Author presence: self-mention as strategy Alternative linguistic formulations give a writer the option of announcing her/his presence. For example, the choice of the plural personal pronoun to report findings in the Discussion section allows the writer to promote a personal contribution. • Our observations of multiple copper (II) co-ordination modes in the octapeptide repeats explain discrepancies in the literature about… • Taken together, we have identified a unique annexin II surface receptor… disciplinary servant persuasive originator Oulu University Language Centre

  16. Application of “shaping forces” Example 3: author stance when making claims The major cleavage site of human Aβ by ACE is reported to be between amino acids Asp7 and Ser8 (11, 12). If Aβ8–40 were a major species of the peptide in wild-type, but not ACE-deficient mice, it is possible that differences in Aβ concentration could be obscured by the use of the BNT77 capture antibody, which was raised against amino acids 11–28 (31). Although we feel that this is unlikely, because Aβ8–40 is a potential substrate of other Aβ-degrading enzymes, we re-analyzed Aβ40 concentration in the ACE 8/8 brains using a rodent Aβ40 sandwich ELISA system that fails to recognize Aβ8–40. Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  17. Evaluation of the course complex based on • Feedback collected from students • Biochemistry Department Feedback Day • Discussions between teachers Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  18. From learners constructing texts to (con)texts constructing learners High learning outcomes • both reported by students and assessed by teachers • courses perceived as useful and relevant But also “added value” through by-products (Perpignan et al, 2007) • Other skills (ICT, reading, info search)* • Affective* • Social interaction* • Behaviour in a professional context* • Thinking skills • Awareness of the meaning of language • Broadening of knowledge base • Learning the meaning of learning • Creativity * explictly mentioned by students although this information was not elicited • Teaching Development Strategy at Oulu University stresses • similar values: • assimilation of scientific skills / knowledge • independent and collaborative problem-solving • cultivation of scientific attitude • professional development • individual development Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  19. added value of by-products “a value that can lead to a meaningful change in their lives” (Perpignan et al, 2007) • course development: • investigate by-products specifically when collecting feedback • make by-products explicit in course aims • consciously strive to enhance development of these knowledge/skills areas equip our students even better to play their part in furthering science and society Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi

  20. Thank you! smac@cc.oulu.fi Oulu University Language Centre, Suzy McAnsh smac@cc.oulu.fi