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United States Coast Guard

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  1. United StatesCoast Guard

  2. Genesis of the U.S. Coast Guard • Cleveland Commission • Charles Nagel • Franklin MacVeagh • 12 March 1914--Passage in the Senate • Sent to the House • Intercession of President Wilson • 20 January 1915 -- Passage in the House President William Howard Taft

  3. “Act to Create the Coast Guard” • 28 January 1915 -- signed by President Wilson • Combined the USLSS & RCS • Armed Service by statute President Woodrow Wilson

  4. Ellsworth P. Bertholf • Class of 1887 • First RCS officer to attend NWC • 1897- Overland Expedition • 19 June 1911 -- Captain-Commandant of RCS • January 1915 – First Commandant of the Coast Guard • International Ice Patrol • Commodore during World War I • 30 June 1919 -- Retired • 11 November 1921--Died

  5. World War I • 6 April 1917-- US declared war on Germany • USCG transferred to US Navy • Cutters • Districts & Personnel • Command of Air Stations & Naval Vessels President Wilson asks Congress to Declare War on Germany Coast Guardsman Drill at Ft. Trumbull, CT USCG & Navy Officers

  6. Loss of Tampa • Convoy escort duty • 26 September 1918 • 131 dead • Largest US naval loss of the war USCGC Tampa Artist’s Depiction of Tampa’s sinking

  7. Captains of thePort • 15 June 1917 -- Espionage Act • 6 December 1917 -- Mont Blanc disaster • Ensure it does not happen in US • Increased munitions shipments • Captain of the Port • CAPT Godfrey L. Carden • New York harbor as largest CG command • 4 October 1918 -- Munitions fire in New Jersey • Joseph E. Stika – Navy Cross Godfrey L. Carden Carden at Work

  8. Seneca & the Wellington Rescue • Derelict destroyer & convoy escort • 16 September 1918 -- convoy to Gibraltar • Wellington torpedoed • First Lieutenant Fletcher Brown and his volunteers • Storm • 11 Dead • Navy Cross Navy Cross Seneca places a damage control crew aboard the torpedoed tanker Wellington

  9. Elmer Stone & NC-4 • CG Aviator 1 • USN Navy Expedition • Competing against the British • 8 May 1919 -- NAS Rockaway • 27 May 1919 – Lisbon • Navy Cross NC-4 crewmen; Stone 2nd from right NC-4 lands in Lisbon after trans-Atlantic flight

  10. Fighting for Survival • Josephus Daniels • Campbell Bill • Carter Glass • Officers in Favor • Enlisted • Joint Resolution • Executive Order 3160 • William F. Reynolds William F. Reynolds

  11. Prohibition • 18th Amendment • Volstead Act • Coast Guard mission Government Agents Destroy Barrels of Liquor

  12. Fighting the “Rum War” • Bootlegging • Insufficient budgets • Andrew W. Mellon • Appropriations • Frederick C. Billard Commandant Frederick C. Billard

  13. “Rumrunners” Almeida Underwriter Kirk and Sweeney loaded with rum Speedboat seized by the Coast Guard

  14. Destroyers for the Coast Guard • Enlarging the USCG • Temporary increase • Destroyers unsuitable • 750-tonners, 1,000-tonners, & “flush deckers” Destroyers Tucker (L) & Cassin (R) at the Philly Navy Yard USCGD Paulding with a seized “rum runner” Destroyer crewmen conduct gunnery practice

  15. Patrol Craft to Combat the “Rumrunners” Experimental Armed Loening OL-5 75 foot “Six-Bitter” 38’ Cabin Picket Boat 100-foot patrol boat Petrel

  16. SIGINT, Elizabeth Friedman, & USCG Cryptanalysis • Signals Intelligence • Introduction of codes • Elizabeth Smith Friedman Frank L. Meals Coast Guard Radio Direction Finder Elizabeth Smith Friedman

  17. Ensign Duke • CG-2327 • Duke climbed onto the ship • Alone for 9 hours • 3,000 50-gallon drums • Captured 22 men Ensign Duke climbs aboard SS Economy Ensign Charles L. Duke

  18. Horace Alderman & I’m Alone • CG-249 and Boastwain Sanderlin • Boatswain Paul, Wolcott, & Dexter • 20 casualties per year Horace Alderman I’m Alone crewmen

  19. End of Prohibition • Prohibition unpopular • FDR • Beer-Wine Revenue Act • 21st Amendment • Sea change for USCG Expression of Popular Sentiment Franklin Delano Roosevelt Prohibition repealed

  20. “Iceberg” Smith & the Marion Expedition • International Ice Patrol • Edward H. Smith • Oceanographic unit • Marion Expedition • Woods Hole Edward “Iceberg” Smith USCGC Marion

  21. USCG in the early 1930s • Interdicting guns & drugs • Harry G. Hamlet • Small budgets • Cost cutting • Combination with the US Navy • CNO William V. Pratt • Congressional resistance Harry G. Hamlet

  22. Russell R. Waesche • Early career • Headquarters • Post-World War I • Destroyer Forces • Return to HQ • Navy War Plans Division • Aide to Commandant • Deep Selection • Longest-serving Commandant Russell R. Waesche

  23. Itasca & Amelia Earhart • Lae to Howland Island • USCGC Itasca • Radio navigation • USS Lexington • Speculation Amelia Earhart USCGC Itasca

  24. USLHS Joins the USCG • Reorganization Plan No. 11 • Efficiency & Economy • Integration of 5,200 personnel and other assets • 7 July 1939

  25. Outbreak of World War II • 1 September 1939 -- Germany Invades Poland • 3 September -- Britain & France declare war • US Declares Its Neutrality • June 1940- France Falls • 22 June 1940 – Espionage Act • Dangerous Cargo Act

  26. Lend-Lease • 2 September 1940 • 11 March 1941 • End of Isolationism • Terms • April-May 1941 • Atlantic Charter USCGC Saranac became HMS Banff Roosevelt & Churchill on board HMS Prince of Wales in July 1941

  27. Greenland • 9 April 1941 • Coast Guard primary service • USCGC Northland & Buskoe • Executive Order No. 8829 • Greenland Patrol Buskoe USCGC Northland

  28. Modoc & Bismarck • Breakout into the Atlantic • 24 May 1941 • Battle of Denmark Straits • Torpedo plane attack - Bismarck’s AA fire - HMS Norfolk - HMS Prince of Wales USCGC Modoc British Swordfish attack Bismarck

  29. World War II – U.S. Attacked • Taney • Walnut • Wakefield • LT Crotty Taney at Honolulu, 7 December 1941 Crotty as a cadet, 1934 Wakefield under attack at Singapore USCGC Walnut

  30. Douglas A. Munro • 27 September 1942- Guadalcanal • Coxswain of Higgins Boat • “Chesty” Puller • Killed by enemy fire • Only Coast Guardsman awarded the Medal of Honor

  31. USCG in the PTO • Guadalcanal to Okinawa • Manned Navy and Army ships • USS Serpens USCG providing logistical support at Okinawa Marines express their appreciation of the Coast Guard

  32. “Corsair Fleet” & Beach Patrol • Coast Guard Reserve & Coastal Picket Patrol • Organization of “Hooligan Navy” • Tradition & Establishment • OPERATION PASTORIOUS • SN2 John Cullen • 25 July 1942 • Reduction SN2 John Cullen

  33. Battle of the Atlantic • Ocean Supply Lines • USCG role is often overlooked • U-Boats offshore • Victories, but loss of Alexander Hamilton • Convoy duty & “Bloody Winter” • Turnaround in Spring ’43 • Against German planes in the Mediterranean • Final Victory Alexander Hamilton sinks after being torpedoed Cutter engages a U-boat with depth charges

  34. Greenland Patrol • Convoy Duty • Engaging U-Boats • Dorchester • Escanaba • Weather stations • Externsteine Eastwind (L) and Storis in the waters off Greenland Externsteine

  35. Amphibious Operations in the ETO • European Theatre of Operations • TORCH through ANVIL • OPERATION OVERLORD • OPERATION NEPTUNE • Assault Transports • Rescue Flotilla • Landing Craft 83-foot cutters of the First Rescue Flotilla CG-manned LCI lands troops at Omaha Beach

  36. Quentin R. Walsh • Logistics and Planning Section • Fort du Homet in Cherbourg • Convinced the Germans • Captured 300 & liberated 50 • Navy Cross Navy Cross LCDR Walsh with his Navy Cross

  37. SPARS • 23 November 1942 • More than 10,000 • Dorothy Stratton • “Semper Paratus –Always Ready” Dorothy Stratton SPARS undergo training

  38. Desegregation • Long service • April 1942 • December 1942 • USCGC Sea Cloud • First officers • SPARs • Integration USCGC Sea Cloud Jenkins (L) & Samuels SPAR Recurits

  39. LORAN • Long Range Navigation= LORAN • Pulse transmission • Range • March 1942 • Lawrence Harding • Practical system • Stations built throughout the world • Civilian applications LORAN Station

  40. COTP in World War II • Navy Department • Increase and consolidation • Marine inspection • June 1942 • Missions • Coordination • Coast Guard Intelligence • Effective

  41. USCG Helps Develop the Helicopter • U-boat successes • Burton and Kossler • Many uses • Budget issues • Frank A. Erickson • Army & Navy • Waesche’s approval • Board • USCGC Cobb • Waesche secured funding • Other applications • Future role in the Coast Guard Frank A. Erickson USCGC Cobb conducts experiments

  42. End of the War • 2 September 1945 • “Magic Carpet” duty • 31 December 1945 • Executive Order No. 9666 President Harry S. Truman Japanese envoy signs the articles of surrender USS Hunter Liggett served on “Magic Carpet” duty

  43. Downsizing After World War II • Demobilization Plan • Separation Centers • Joseph F. Farley • Class of 1912 • Destroyer Force • During the War • “Uncle Joe” • Clarification of CG roles ADM Joseph F. Farley

  44. Korean War • Korean Coast Guard • 25 June 1950 • No cutters • Important to war effort • Ocean Stations • SAR assets • Port Security • LORAN US advisors visit a class at the Korean Naval Academy Pusan LORAN station

  45. Ocean Stations • Ocean Station program • Duty • Routines USCGC Winona arrives to relieve USCGC Winnebago PBM-5G buzzes USCGC Vance Collecting Weather Data

  46. Northwest Passage • Ambition for 400 years • DEW • Breaking ice • Stuck in the ice • Breakout & completion Map of the Arctic waters USCGC Storis in 1957 Storis, Spar, & Bramble make their way through the ice

  47. Ice Operations • Purpose • Polar Operations • Domestic Ice Operations • International Ice Patrol • Marine Science USCGC Northland under sail USCGC Eastwind in the Antarctic, Deep Freeze ‘55-’56 Newest Polar icebreaker, USCGC Healy

  48. Vietnam War • Tonkin Gulf Resolution • CG participation needed • Squadron One • Squadron Three 82-footers on transports bound for Vietnam USCG 311-foot cutters in Vietnam Vietnam-bound Coast Guardsmen begin training

  49. Operation Market Time • Supplies from North Vietnam • Interdiction mission/Single command • Success • Logistics diverted to the • Ho Chi Minh Trail USCGC Rush provides naval gunfire support Crew from Point White pose with captured VC weapons Men from Gresham inspect suspected Vietcong junk

  50. “Winning the Hearts and Minds” Distributing candy to Vietnamese children USCG Warrant Officer visits a girl from the Saigon School for Blind Girls USCG junior officer with the children he taught math A BMC from Point Mast gives a gift to a Vietnamese girl