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Type and Typography. By Dr. Jin Yang. Why study types anyway?. Type carries message and emotion

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type and typography

Type and Typography

By Dr. Jin Yang

type and typography

why study types anyway
Why study types anyway?
  • Type carries message and emotion
  • “There are two functions of type: One is to transit the message silently, as a transparent container, which doesn’t get in the way. The other is to distinguish its message, making it memorable in different forms”

type and typography

to be covered
Type Classification

Typographical basics

To be covered

type and typography

two kinds of type faces
Text or body type

Silently carry the information

Should be invisible

Quiet and modest

Display type

Call attention to it

Loud in-your-face effect

A type: costume words dress up to convey a tone

Loud and conceited

Two kinds of type faces

type and typography

type classification
Old style

Modern

Slab serif

Sans serif

Script

Decorative

Type Classification

type and typography

oldstyle type
Oldstyle Type
  • Old typefaces are based on hand lettering of scribes--- image a wedge-tipped pen
  • They Have serifs
  • Serifs on low case letters at an angle
  • The contrast in the stroke is relatively moderate
  • Ex. Times, Palatino, Garamond, Goudy
  • Good for extensive amounts of body copy

type and typography

modern
Modern
  • New types no longer followed the pen in hand
  • They become more mechanical
  • They have serifs, but serifs are horizontal instead of slanted, they are very thin.
  • Radical transition from thick to thin in strokes
  • Cold, elegant look
  • Ex. Bodoni, Times Bold, Fenice, Ultra
  • Not a good choice for extended amounts of body copy.

type and typography

slab serif
Slab Serif
  • Advertising age
  • Have no transition from the thick to thin, a slight thick/thin contrast
  • Sometimes called Clarendon style or Egyptian
  • Ex. Clarendon, Memphis, Cairo, New Century Schoolbook
  • High on readability scale, often used in children’s books

type and typography

sans serif
Sans Serif
  • Sans means without
  • Sans serif typefaces are monoweight: no visible transition in the strokes
  • Letterforms are same thickness all the way around
  • Ex. Antique Olive, Franklin Gothic, Futura

type and typography

script
Script
  • These typefaces appear to have been handlettered with a calligraphy pen or brush, or sometimes with a pencil or technical pen
  • Use them sparingly
  • Two kinds: scripts that connect and nonconnect
  • Ex. Cascade, linoscript

type and typography

decorative
Decorative
  • Trendy display type
  • Has to be used very selectively
  • Ex. Improv, Juniper

type and typography

typography
Typography
  • What is typography?
  • Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. Type glyphs (characters) are created and modified using a variety of illustration techniques. The arrangement of type is the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing) and letter spacing.
  • Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic artists, art directors, and clerical workers. Until the Digital Age typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of visual designers and lay users.

type and typography

baseline
Baseline
  • BaselineThe implied line that letters align themselves on horizontally.

type and typography

x height
X-height
  • X-Height
  • The body height of letters from the baseline without the ascender.

type and typography

ascender
Ascender
  • AscenderThe part of a letter which extends above the x-height or x-line.

type and typography

descender
Descender
  • Descender
  • The part of the letter that extends below the baseline.

type and typography

type terms 1
Type Terms 1
  • JustificationThe manner in which lines of type align to left or right margins.

type and typography

type term 2
Type Term 2
  • Tracking and Spacing
  • Selectively adding or subtracting spaces between all the letters on a line to lessen the impact of spaces between words (rivers of white.)

type and typography

type world 3
Type World 3
  • KerningDeleting space between certain letter pairs with parallel diagonal strokes, such as As, Vs and Ws, or between characters such as T and o; to create a more even letter spacing.

type and typography

type world term 4
Type World Term 4
  • Leading
  • A term that comes from hot type where actual strips of lead were put between the lines of cast type to increase the space between them; usually one or two extra points plus the actual point size of the type used.

type and typography

the important measurement system
The important measurement system
  • Type Size
  • Type is measured in point size. Line length is measured in picas. There are 6 picas per inch, 12 points per pica, and 72 points per inch.

type and typography

type letter terms
Type Size in points, picas and inches

1 inch = 6 picas

1 pica = 12 points same as 12 inches in one feet

1 inch = 72 points

Measured from the top of ascender to the bottom of descender

Type Letter Terms

type and typography