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Typography Johannes Gutenberg 1400-1460

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johannes gutenberg 1400 1460
Johannes Gutenberg 1400-1460
  • a Germangoldsmith and printer, who is credited with inventingmovable typeprinting in Europe and mechanical printing globally. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, also known as the 42-line bible, has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.
slide3

Movable metal type, and composing stick,

descended from Gutenberg's invention

proportions of the letterforms
Proportions of the letterforms
  • stroke to height ratio
  • contrast in stroke weight
  • expanded and condensed style
optical relationship
Optical relationship
  • pointed & curved (A & O)
    • extend beyond baseline and capline

AEOV

  • 2-storied: center above, top narrower:

E

  • horizontal strokes thinner

H

slide7
tight junctions opened to prevent thickening at the joint

M

Q smaller than H

  • curved strokes are usually thinner at their Midsection than the vertical strokes, to achieve an even appearance.
slide8
Font
  • Set of characters of the same size and style containing all the letters, numbers and marks needed for typesetting:
    • UPPERCASE/CAPITALS
    • Lowercase
    • Small caps
    • Lining Figures: 1234567890 (numerals identical in size to the capitals and aligned on the baseline)
    • Old-style Figures 1234567890 (numerals that exhibit a variation in size
    • Ligatures ff fi fl
    • Punctuation
    • Symbols
slide9
Font: All the letters, numbers and punctuation of a single size of a single typeface (12-point Helvetica)
  • Typeface: The distinctive, design of an alphabet (and accompanying numbers and punctuation). All point sizes of that typeface.
setting type
Setting type
  • All caps
  • All lowercase
  • Cap first of every word/important word/first word only

> Emotional IMPACT

tracking letterspacing
Tracking = letterspacing
  • When too generous, legibility is reduced
  • Avoid letterspacing l o w e r c a s e
  • Avoid too much letterspacing with

c o n d e n s e d l e t t e r s

  • Punctuation needs reduced spacing
units of measurement
Units of Measurement
  • 1 Inch = 72 pt (points) = 6 p (picas)
  • 1 pica=12 points
  • Points are the smallest unit of measurement. Type and leading are measured in points with 72 points to the inch.
  • Use picas for measuring column width and depth, margins, and other larger distances.
type sizes
Type sizes
  • 5-72
  • Text >14 (usually 9-11)(12> = eesh)
  • Display 14>
  • X-height changes Size Size perception
  • Bigger is not always better
    • use position, color, surrounding white space
visual features of typefaces
Visual features of typefaces
  • Serifs
  • Weight
  • Width (expanded, condensed)
  • Posture (Italic, oblique, script)
  • Thick/thin contrast
  • x-height x-height
  • Ascenders & descenders length
how to choose a typeface
How to choose a typeface
  • Function
  • Audience
  • Mood
    • Roman: dignity, austerity, grace
    • Modern: forceful, assertive, presence and persistence
    • Sans serif: modern, business-like, efficient, no-nonsense
    • Scripts: imitate handwriting