Managing Organizational Change. Learning Principles and Change Kurt Lewin. Unfreezing old learning requires people who want to learn new ways to think and act. Unfreezing deals directly with resistance to change. Movement to new learning requires training, demonstration, and empowerment.
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External Change Agents
Internal Change Agents
External-Internal Change Agents
A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.
Flexible manufacturing systems
Initiator of change: internal and/or external change agent
Types of Change Programs
Anticipated Improvement Outcomes
Concern for measurement
Climate of openness
Systems perspectiveFactors that Facilitate Organizational Learning Capabilities
Managing Change through Power
Managing Change through Reason
Managing Change through Reeducation
Mission and Strategy
Human Resource Management
Differentiating: organize work into roles (production, marketing and so forth).
Integrate: recombining roles into departments, divisions, regions.
Align structure to strategy.
Fit people to roles.
Staff/ and develop to fill roles (present and future).
Determine who influences mission and strategy.
Manage coalitional behavior around strategic decisions.
Distribute power across role structure.
Balance power across group of roles (I.e., sales vs. marketing, production vs. R&D and so forth).
Manage succession politics (who gets ahead, how they get ahead).
Design and administer reward system (who gets what and how).
Manage politics of appraisal (who is appraised by whom and how).
Manage influence of values and philosophy of mission and strategy.
Develop culture aligned with mission and strategy.
Develop managerial style aligned with technical and political structure.
Develop subcultures to support roles (production culture, R&D culture, and so forth).
Integrate subcultures to create company culture.
Select people to build or reinforce culture.
Develop employees (socialization) to mold organizational culture.
Manage rewards to shape and reinforce culture.
Tichy’s Strategic Management Mix