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Managing Organizational Change. Learning Principles and Change Kurt Lewin. Unfreezing old learning requires people who want to learn new ways to think and act. Unfreezing deals directly with resistance to change. Movement to new learning requires training, demonstration, and empowerment.

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learning principles and change kurt lewin
Learning Principles and Change Kurt Lewin
  • Unfreezing old learning requires people who want to learn new ways to think and act.
    • Unfreezing deals directly with resistance to change.
  • Movement to new learning requires training, demonstration, and empowerment.
  • Refreezing the learned behavior occurs through the application of reinforcement and feedback.
change agents
Change Agents
  • Change agent – an intervener who brings a different perspective to the situation and challenges the status quo.
  • The success of any change program rests heavily on the quality and workability of the relationship between the change agent and the key decision makers within the organization.
types of change agents
Types of Change Agents

External Change Agents

Internal Change Agents

External-Internal Change Agents

why people resist change
Why People Resist Change
  • Parochial self-interest
  • Misunderstanding and lack of trust
  • Different assessments
  • Low tolerance for change
forces for change
Forces for Change

Environmental Forces

Internal Forces

diagnosis of a problem
Diagnosis of a Problem
  • There is no formula for accurate diagnosis, but the following questions point the manager, or change agent in the right direction:
    • What is the problem as distinct from the symptoms of the problem?
    • What must be changed to resolve the problem?
    • What outcomes (objectives) are expected from the change?
    • How will those outcomes be measured?
diagnosis of a problem data collection process and techniques
Diagnosis of a Problem:Data Collection Process and Techniques
  • Questionnaire data can be collected from large numbers of people.
  • Direct observations can be taken of actual workplace behavior.
  • Selected individuals in key positions can be interviewed.
  • Workshops can be arranged with groups to explore different perceptions of problems.
  • Documents and records of the organization can be examined for archival and current information.

Intervention –

A specific action or program undertaken to focus the change process on particular targets.

depth and approach of intended change
Depth and Approach of Intended Change
  • Depth of intended change –refers to the magnitude of the problem to be addressed and the significance of the change required to address the problem.
  • Three approaches to intended change:
    • Structural
    • Behavioral
    • Technological
depth and approach of intended change continued
Depth and Approach of Intended Change (continued)
  • Structural
    • Focuses on changing or redesigning jobs, workflow, or organizational structure.
  • Behavioral
    • This is organizational development (OD).
  • Technological
    • This change could involve computers, intranets, the IT infrastructure, materials, techniques, or automation of work processes.
internal change masters rosabeth moss kanter
Internal Change MastersRosabeth Moss Kanter
  • Use kaleidoscope thinking
  • 2. Create clear vision and sense of direction
  • 3. Build coalitions
  • 4. Work through teams
  • 5. Make everyone a hero
structural change alternative techniques
Structural Change Alternative Techniques
  • Changes in the nature of jobs
    • Work simplification
    • Job enrichment
  • Changes in the bases for departmentalization
    • Function
    • Territory
    • Product
    • Customer
  • Changes in line – staff relationships
behavioral change alternative techniques
Behavioral Change Alternative Techniques

Team Building

Diversity Training

technological change alternative techniques
Technological Change Alternative Techniques

Flexible manufacturing systems


Wireless Connectivity


anticipated outcomes of three change approaches
Anticipated Outcomes of Three Change Approaches

Structural changes





Work simplification

Job enrichment

Job description


Behavioral changes





Problem solving

Initiator of change: internal and/or external change agent

Team building




Wireless connectivity




Technological changes


Types of Change Programs

Anticipated Improvement Outcomes

trends in organizational change
Trends in Organizational Change





minimizing resistance to change
Minimizing Resistance to Change
  • Education and communication
  • Participation and involvement
  • Facilitation and support
  • Negotiation and agreement
  • Manipulation and cooptation
  • Explicit and implicit coercion
factors that facilitate organizational learning capabilities
Scanning imperative

Performance gap

Concern for measurement

Experimental mindset

Climate of openness

Continuous education

Operational variety

Multiple advocates

Involved leadership

Systems perspective

Factors that Facilitate Organizational Learning Capabilities
alternative change management approaches
Alternative Change Management Approaches

Managing Change through Power

Managing Change through Reason

Managing Change through Reeducation


Managerial Areas

Mission and Strategy



Human Resource Management

  • Undertake SWOT Analysis
  • Define mission and selecting resources to accomplish it.

Differentiating: organize work into roles (production, marketing and so forth).

Integrate: recombining roles into departments, divisions, regions.

Align structure to strategy.

Fit people to roles.

Specify performancecriteria

Measure performance.

Staff/ and develop to fill roles (present and future).

Determine who influences mission and strategy.

Manage coalitional behavior around strategic decisions.

Distribute power across role structure.

Balance power across group of roles (I.e., sales vs. marketing, production vs. R&D and so forth).

Manage succession politics (who gets ahead, how they get ahead).

Design and administer reward system (who gets what and how).

Manage politics of appraisal (who is appraised by whom and how).

Technical System

Manage influence of values and philosophy of mission and strategy.

Develop culture aligned with mission and strategy.

Develop managerial style aligned with technical and political structure.

Develop subcultures to support roles (production culture, R&D culture, and so forth).

Integrate subcultures to create company culture.

Select people to build or reinforce culture.

Develop employees (socialization) to mold organizational culture.

Manage rewards to shape and reinforce culture.

Political System

Cultural System

Tichy’s Strategic Management Mix

conditions which limit change interventions
Conditions Which Limit Change Interventions

Leadership Climate

Formal Organization

Organizational Culture

guidelines for managing change
Guidelines for Managing Change
  • Management and all those involved must have high and visible commitment to the effort.
  • People who are involved need to have advance information that enables them to know what is to happen and why they are being asked to do what they are to do.
  • The effort (especially the evaluation and reward systems) must be connected to other parts of the organization.
guidelines for managing change continued
Guidelines for Managing Change (continued)
  • The effort needs to be directed by line managers and assisted by a change agent if necessary.
  • The effort must be based on good diagnosis and must be consistent with the conditions in the organization.
  • Management must remain committed to the effort throughout all its steps, from diagnosis through implementation and evaluation.
guidelines for managing change continued25
Guidelines for Managing Change (continued)
  • Evaluation is essential and must consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort.
  • People must see clearly the relationship between the effort and the organization’s mission and goals.
  • The change agent, if used, must be clearly competent and perceived as competent.