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Nutrition • Study of what people eat and of eating habits and how these affect their health
The Foods You Choose • How do these factors influence your decisions? • Personal Preferences • Cultural Background • Time and Convenience • Friends • The Media
Reading a Food Label • Food Label • Panel of nutrition information required on all processed foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration • Nutrition Facts • Title of information panel that is required on most foods
Serving Size • Serving Size: is the listing of food that is considered a serving • Provided in familiar units, such as cups or pieces, followed by the metric amount, e.g., the number of grams • Serving per container: listing of number of servings in container or package
Calories • Calories: number of calories in 1 serving • Calories provide a measure of how much energy you get from a serving of the food. • The General Guide to Calories provides a general reference for calories when you look at a Nutrition Facts label. This guide is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
% Daily Value: Based on 2000 calorie diet Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase your risk of certain chronic diseases, like heart disease, some cancers, or high blood pressure. Look at Fat, Cholesterol, & Sodium per serving
% Daily Values 5% or less is LOW 20% or more is HIGH Daily Value
Fiber, Vitamins, & Minerals Dietary Fiber: Aim for 25g/day Vitamins and Minerals: Aim for 100% of DV through a wide variety of foods
Food Labels • Ingredients listing: list of ingredients in a food. The ingredients are listed in order of quantity in food, the most to least. • Food additives: substances intentionally added to food • Enriched food: nutrients lost during processing are added back into food
Food Labels: Nutrient and Health Claims • …Free • Fat free: contains less than 0.5 g fat • Sugar free: contains less than 0.5 g sugars • Low in… • Low in calories: contains less than 40 calories • Low in sodium: contains less than 140 mg of sodium • High in… • High in Vitamin C: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV of vitamin C
Food Labels:Nutrient and Health Claims • Light • Contains 50% less fat or at least 1/3 fewer calories then regular version of product • Excellent source of… • Excellent source of calcium: one serving provides 20% or more of the DV for calcium • May reduce your risk of heart disease • Can appear on fiber containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables that are also low in saturated fats and cholesterol
Nutrients • Nutrients are substances that the body needs to regulate bodily functions, promote growth, repair body tissues, and obtain energy.
6 NUTRIENTS!!!! • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Energy Nutrients • Why do we need energy? • Your body needs energy for everything you do: running, playing an instrument, even sleeping. • You need energy to maintain your body temperature and keep your heart beating • Energy nutrients provide calories • Energy nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins and fats • Calorie: unit for the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down
Energy Nutrients: Carbohydrates Recommended daily intake: 45-65% of daily calories • Two Types: • Simple • Complex
Simple & Complex Carbohydrates • Simple Carbohydrates • Sugars that naturally occur in fruits, vegetables and milk • Added sugars to manufactured foods such as cookies, candies, soft drinks • Complex Carbohydrates • Starches, found in plant foods, such as potatoes, grains, rice, oats, corn, and wheat products • Complex carbohydrates take longer for your body to metabolize than simple carbohydrates
Carbohydrates • Fiber: a type of complex carbohydrate that can not be broken down by the body • Fiber passes through your body without being digested • Benefits of a high fiber diet include • Helps prevent constipation • May reduce risk of colon cancer • May help prevent heart disease • Fiber is found in whole grain breads and cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans and seeds
Fats • Fats supply your body with energy, form your cells, maintain body temperature, and protect your nerves. • Recommended Daily Intake 20-35% of daily calories
Fats • Unsaturated Fat aka “Good Fat” • Important for cardiovascular health & can help fight heart disease • Found in plant products • Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fats • Mono: olive oil, peanuts, and canola oil • Poly: safflower, corn and soybean oil, and seafood • Saturated Fats aka “Bad Fat” • Too much can lead to cardiovascular disease • Solid at room temperature • Found in animal fats, lard, and dairy products
Day 2 Journal – read “Reasons Struggling with Weight”What does the Article Give Advice/Info on About…? • Liquid Calories…? • Stress…? • Portion Sizes…? • Coping with Emotions…? • Skipping Breakfast…?
Proteins • Proteins most important function is their role in the growth and repair of your body’s tissues • Great sources: meats, eggs, poultry, milk, milk products, nuts, beans, peas, and lentils. • Recommended Daily Intake 10-35% of daily calories
Proteins • Proteins are made up of amino acids • There are 20 different amino acids; 9 are essential, meaning you must get them in your diet, the other 11 your body can manufacture from your diet • Complete Proteins: contain all 9 essential amino acids • Meats & fish • Incomplete Proteins: Lacks 1 or more of the essential amino acids • Plant sources, such as beans • End Day 1 Notes
Vitamins • Vitamins do not provide energy, but they help with various processes and chemical reactions in the body • Fat-soluble vitamins: dissolve in fat • Vitamins A, D, E, & K • Occur in vegetable oils, liver, eggs and certain vegetables • Can be stored by the body in fat
Vitamins • Water-soluble vitamins: dissolve in water • Vitamin C and all B vitamins • Occur in fruits, vegetables and other sources • Can not be stored by the body, therefore it is important to eat foods that supply them every day • Antioxidants: Help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by normal aging processes and certain cancers • Vitamin C & E are most powerful antioxidants • Berries, broccoli, tomatoes, whole grains, seeds, nuts and peanut butter
Minerals Flax seed contains phosphorus • Minerals do not provide energy, but they perform a wide variety of functions within your body and are essential for good health • Significant amounts: Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine and sulfur are need in significant amounts • Trace amounts: Iron, fluorine, iodine, copper, and zinc
Minerals • Calcium • Function: helps build and maintain bones & teeth • Source: milk, dark leafy greens, legumes (alfalfa, peas, beans, lentils, soy, and peanuts) • Potassium • Function: helps maintain water balance and make protein • Source: vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry and fish • Iron • Function: necessary for healthy red blood cells • Source: red meat, seafood, legumes, fortified cereals • Sodium • Function: helps maintain water balance, heart and nerve function • Source: table salt, processed foods, soy sauce
Water • About 65% of your body weight is water • Water does not provide energy, but is essential for all life processes, including energy production Water is also important because: • Makes up a basic part of blood • Helps with waste removal • Regulates body temperature • Cushions spinal cord and joints
Water • Females, 14-18 years old: need at least 10- 8 ounce cups of water • Males, 14-18 years old: need at least 14- 8 ounce cups of water • Water can be consumed in fruits, vegetables, juices
Water Dehydration: a serious reduction in body’s water content • Symptoms: weakness, rapid breathing, a weak heart beat • Drinks that contain caffeine-coffee, tea and soda- contribute to the amount of water your body excretes, so avoid these beverages
“Choose My Plate” • Choose My Plate is based on an individual’s age, sex, and activity level • Choosemyplate.gov
Dietary Guidelines 2010 Balancing Calories ●Enjoy your food, but eat less. ●Avoid oversized portions. Foods to Increase ●Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. ●Make at least half your grains whole grains. ●Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. Foods to Reduce ●Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals ― and choose the foods with lower numbers. ●Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
The New Food Guide Plate has 5 food Sections… Vegetables Grains Fruits Proteins Dairy
Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the vegetable group. • Vegetables can be: • raw or cooked • fresh or frozen • dried • Remember to eat a variety of vegetables.
Broccoli spinach collard greens squash sweet potatoes corn Artichokes Beans and peas asparagus beets cauliflower eggplant cucumbers bell peppers potatoes onions Vegetables
Any food made from: wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or other cereal grain. • Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel. • Refined grains have been milled, which removes the bran and germ from the grain. • This improves the texture and shelf-life, but removes the fiber, iron, and B vitamins from the final grain product.
brown rice oatmeal popcorn tortillas couscous grits pasta pita bread whole wheat bread pretzels quinoa Grains
Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the fruit group. • Fruits can be: • fresh • canned • frozen • dried • Eat different colored fruits to add variety to your diet and limit fruit juices.
apples avocados bananas blueberries cherries lemons grapes watermelon oranges nectarines peaches limes plums pineapple papaya guava Fruits
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the protein group. Beans and peas are also part of the Vegetable Group. • Most meat and poultry/chicken choices should be lean or low-fat. • Fish, nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose them frequently.
lean cuts of beef lean cuts of pork chicken turkey eggs almonds peanuts Garbanzo beans lentils lean ground beef lean ground pork salmon halibut tuna swordfish shrimp scallops crab Protein Group
Milk is a good source of calcium, vitamin D, and riboflavin. • Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group. • Try to choose milk group choices that are: • fat-free • low-fat
milk flavored milk puddings ice cream frozen yogurt yogurt ricotta cheese cottage cheese processed cheese cheddar cheese mozzarella cheese parmesan cheese swiss cheese soy milk Milk Group
Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature. • Oils come from many different plants and from fish. • Oils are generally high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. These fats are healthy. • Consumes most of fats from fish, nuts and vegetable oils • Limit solid fats, such as butter, stick margarine, shortening & lard • THERE IS NO RECOMMENDED DAILY AMOUNT!
canola oil corn oil cottonseed oil olive oil safflower oil soybean oil mayonnaise salad dressings soft tub margarines some fish Sunflower oil Oils Recommendation: Use sparingly
Food Labels Wks • # 5 Page 222 • # 8 Page 203-204 & 207 • Sodium = no more than 2,400 mg per day (compare with your product…?) • Low in < 5% DV • High in > 20% DV
Physical activity simply means to move the body so it uses energy. For health benefits, physical activity should be moderate to vigorous for at least 30-60 minutes a day. Only moderate and vigorous intensity activities count toward meeting your physical activity needs. With vigorous activities, you get similar health benefits in half the time it takes you with moderate ones. You can replace some or all of your moderate activity with vigorous activity.
Moderate: walking briskly hiking gardening dancing golfing bicycling weight training Vigorous: running swimming aerobics competitive basketball walking fast weight lifting Physical Activities End Day 2
Day 3 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans • The Dietary Guidelines provide information about how to make smart food choices, balance food intake with physical activity, get the most nutrition out of the calories you consume, and handle food safely