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Phonemic Awareness & Phonics. ATE / RFTEN 2006. Oglala Lakota College. What it is… Understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes) The skill of hearing and producing separate sounds in words The ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words .

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phonemic awareness phonics

Phonemic Awareness & Phonics

ATE / RFTEN 2006

Oglala Lakota College

phonemic awareness
What it is…

Understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds (phonemes)

The skill of hearing and producing separate sounds in words

The ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words

Most Effective when…

Presented early on

Explicit instruction is used to focus on one or two phonemic awareness skills

Small group instruction is utilized

Letters accompany phonemic awareness instruction

Connections are made to reading and writing

Phonemic Awareness
phonological awareness

Phoneme Blending, Segmenting, and Manipulation

Onset-Rime Blending and Segmenting

Syllable Blending and Segmentation

Sentence Segmentation

Rhyme / Alliteration

Phonological Awareness


Activity: Phonological Awareness

the alphabetic principle
Alphabetic Principle

The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words

Is the key to learning to read in many languages, including English and Lakota

Composed of two parts:

Alphabetic Understanding

Letter Recognition

Letter-Sound Relationships

Phonological Recording (Decoding)

Regular word reading

Irregular word reading

Advanced word analysis (study)

The Alphabetic Principle

“Students who acquire and apply the alphabetic principle early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits.” (Stanovich, 1986)

letter sound relationships
What it is and Why…

Refers to the common sounds of letters and letter combinations in written words

Predicts later reading success

Effective Instruction…

Explicit and systematic

Presents initial instruction of the common sounds associated with individual letters

Progresses to blending sounds together to read words

Letter-Sound Relationships

Activity: First 11 Letter-Sound Correspondences

i, t, p, n, s, a d, l, f, h, g

sequence for introducing letter sound correspondences
Sequence for Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondences
  • i, t, p, n, s, a, l, d, f, h, g, o, k, c, m, r, b, e, y, j, u, w, v, x, z, qu
  • Introduce a few letters at a time
  • Separate similar shapes and sounds
  • Connect to reading and writing words

Adapted from: Neuhaus Education Center (1992)

phonics instruction
Phonics Instruction

Teaches children the relationship between the individual sounds of spoken language and the letters of written language

Progresses from letter-sounds relationships to using spelling patterns and understanding meaningful units in words

Teaches students to examine words and apply phonics elements and structural analysis to read and spell words

Most Effective when…

Children receive early and systematic instruction

Teachers provide explicit directions for learning new letter-sound relationships and phonic elements

Used in a variety of grouping patterns

Children have opportunities to apply their new skills in reading and writing

Phonics Instruction
guidelines for teaching decoding
Select words that:

Consist of previously taught letter-sound correspondences

Progress from VC and CVC words to longer words

Are frequently used and represent familiar vocabulary

Sequence instruction:

Blend individual sounds without stopping between them

Initially contain “stop” sounds in the final position

Following sounding out of a word with its “fast” pronunciation

Move from orally sounding out words to silently “sounding out” words

Guidelines for Teaching Decoding
word reading strategies
Identifying and blending together all of the letter-sound correspondences in words

Recognizing high frequency and irregular words

Using common spelling and syllable patterns

Using structural clues such as compound words, base words, affixes and inflections

Using knowledge of syntax (word order) and semantics (context) to support pronunciation and confirm word meaning

Word Reading Strategies

Taught concurrently with new letter-sound correspondences.

spelling patterns
Spelling Patterns
  • Letter sequences of vowel and consonant letters that are learned and produced as a unit
  • Also known as phonograms or rimes
  • Words containing the same rime for word families (/all/: fall, ball, tall, call, mall)
syllable patterns
Closed: ends in at least one consonant; the vowel is short

Open: ends in one vowel; the vowel is long

Vowel-Consonant-e: ends in one vowel, a consonant and a final e; the final e is silent and the vowel is long

R-Controlled: has an r after the vowel; the vowel makes an unexpected sound

Vowel Teams: has two adjacent vowels; each vowel combination must be learned individually

Final Stable Syllable: has a final consonant –le combination or a non-phonetic, but reliable unit such as -tion

Syllable Patterns


Handout: Teaching the Six Syllable Types

structural analysis
Structural Analysis
  • Compound words
  • Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed
  • Base words and common affixes
    • Prefixes: re-, un-, con-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, dis-
    • Suffixes: -ness, -full, -ion
multisyllabic word identification
Using Syllable Patterns

S - see the syllable patters

P – place a line between

the syllables

L – look at each syllable

I – identify the syllable


T – try to say the word

(adapted from Durkin, 1993)

Using Structural Analysis

H – highlight the prefix

and/or suffix parts

I – identify the sounds in

the base word

N – name the base word

T – tie the parts together

S – say the word

(adapted from Archer, Gleason & Vaughn, 2000)

Multisyllabic Word Identification
apply the hints strategy to decode these words










Apply the HINTS Strategy to decode these words:
apply the hints strategy to decode these words1










Apply the HINTS Strategy to decode these words:
apply the split strategy to decode these pseudowords










Apply the SPLIT Strategy to decode these pseudowords:
apply the split strategy to decode these pseudowords1
zim / tle


thi / pur


ex / op


er / pe / tle


roo / gir


mik / ner


pri / tho


re / pote

O v-e

seb / shir


sar / pyn


Apply the SPLIT Strategy to decode these pseudowords:
multisyllabic chunking
Multisyllabic chunking

When skilled readers encounter multisyllabic, unfamiliar words, they divide or chunk them into manageable units

  • Word families of phonograms: -ade, -ick, -ill
  • Inflectional endings: -s, -es, -ing, -ed
  • Prefixes and Suffixes: fore-, dis-, -ity, -ency
  • Known words:
    • to read (woman)
    • to remember spelling (conscience)
syntax and context
Syntax and Context
  • Used to:
    • Support word identification
    • Confirm word meaning
  • Questions students might ask themselves:
    • “Does that sound right here?”
    • “Does that make sense?”
supporting new words
Supporting New Words
  • Provide multiple opportunities for practicing new words:
    • Word Walls
    • Making and Sorting Words
    • Word and Sentence Dictation
    • Broad Reading
    • Writing for a Purpose
a primary goal of reading instruction
A Primary Goal of Reading Instruction
  • To prepare student to read stories and informational texts fluently so that they are able to understand what they read

“You can’t read to learn until you first learn to read.” – Rod Paige, US Secretary of Education

implementing word study instruction tomorrow
Implementing Word Study Instruction Tomorrow
  • Work as a group to consider how you might implement word study instruction using a selected story or text

Handout: Instructional Planning Chart

assessing alphabetic principle
Assessing Alphabetic Principle
  • DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)
    • A standardized, individually administered test of the alphabetic principle - including letter-sound correspondence and of the ability to blend letters into words in which letters represent their most common sounds.
    • Given in Winter (optional) and Spring of Kindergarten, and Fall, Winter, and Spring of First Grade.
assessing alphabetic principle1
Assessing Alphabetic Principle

Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)

  • A nationally normed measure of word reading accuracy and fluency
  • Provides an efficient means of monitoring the growth of two kinds of word reading skills
    • the ability to accurately recognize familiar words as whole units or “sight words”
    • the ability to “sound out” words quickly
  • Ages: 6-0 to 24-11
assessing phonics skills
Assessing Phonics Skills
  • The Quick Phonics Screener (QPS)
    • An ongoing progress monitoring tool to monitor word study knowledge, identify needs and inform your instruction
    • For use in grades K-6
  • Author Contact:
materials and resources
Materials and Resources
  • Word Study for Students with Learning Disabilities and English Language Learners
  • Examining Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs
  • Word Analysis: Principles for Instruction and Progress Monitoring
  • Curriculum Maps: Sequencing Alphabetic Principle Skills
  • Guidelines for Examining Phonics & Word Recognition Programs

  • Online Teacher Reading Academies, University of Texas, Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts
  • Big Ideas in Beginning Reading, University of Oregon, Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement
  • Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Vaughn & Linan-Thompson
  • Increasing Student Spelling Achievement: Not Just on Tests, But In Daily Writing Across the Curriculum, Rebecca Sitton