Phonics, Word Recognition, and Spelling. Sharon Walpole University of Delaware. Overview of the Session. Look at development of the alphabetic principle in a child’s natural writing Discuss stages in reading and spelling development
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Phonics, Word Recognition, and Spelling Sharon Walpole University of Delaware
Overview of the Session • Look at development of the alphabetic principle in a child’s natural writing • Discuss stages in reading and spelling development • Review principles of, strategies for, and research on phonics instruction • Look at reflection of the alphabetic principle in a child’s developmental spelling assessments • Review some basic concepts about the spelling system that are helpful for teachers to know • Consider strategies for developing teacher knowledge in this area
Children’s spellings can give us insight into their knowledge of the characteristics of an alphabetic orthography. From spellings, we can document what children know, what they can do, and what they need to learn.
TRNSX “tyrannosaurus rex” October, Kindergarten
HTUT SAT NO DWO WOW “Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall (and I made the O into a pumpkin!)” October, Kindergarten
Fin you dot limi wrking you ovwas s locat the mes you mad “Fine. You don’t like my working. You always say look at the mess you made.” Summer Between Kindergarten and First
I like gowin g to the moves with my mom September, First Grade
WONS A BOY NAMDE DAVY FIDID INDEIDS HE HAD A GON AND A NIF HE WOS the KING of the WIYD FROTTER TER October, First Grade
I like horsis The beste I like anomols. November, First Grade
I like to ski on the hill. I like green eggs and ham. January, First Grade
Onc my brother had a dream. We had a krab. We boet the krab that day. That same knite the krab crold on my brothers head and he dreamd abuot that crab. He wock up and said I dremd abuot a krab.
Today at library we talkt about Sinthiea Riyhlent. She had a real dog naemd mudge. And she rote abuot Henry and mudge. A subetot came in and read us a henry and mudge book. March, First Grade
My uncel came on Saterday. He was the kcick me chaimpieon. He juggled 585 times in a row. He was the best in the word back then. He realy was!!!! April, First Grade
The watercress seeds are poiting towerd the window because it needs sun. We are going to be able to eat them at the end of school. May, First Grade
General Questions • Do you have adequate understanding of developmental issues in reading and spelling? • Do you have adequate understanding of the role of decoding in word recognition and spelling? • Does your reading program include adequate attention to instruction in phonics and decoding? • Does your reading program include a sensible plan for assessment of phonics knowledge and decoding skills? • Does your reading program include adequate attention to intervention in decoding?
General Plan • Who needs phonics instruction? When? • A look at literacy ages and stages • Instructional strategies for teaching phonics • Research on phonics instruction • Building a knowledge base for teaching phonics
Development of Reading • Emergent Stage: Before children have a concept of word • Beginning Stage: As children are building a sight vocabulary • Instructional Stage: Continues through years--advances with instruction • Transitional reader: Begin to read silently and read/write with greater fluency • Intermediate and Advanced: Read to learn and write to convey meaning
Stages in Beginning Reading Ehri (1997) • Pre-alphabetic Uses environmental and visual cues • Partial alphabetic Reads words by forming connections between only some of the letters • Full alphabetic Reads words by forming complete connections because child can segment to the phoneme • Consolidated alphabetic Reads words by chunking (morphemes, syllables, etc.) Ehri, L. (1997). Sight word learning in normal readers and dyslexics. In B. Blachman (Ed.), Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention (pp. 163-189). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stages in Beginning Spelling Gentry (1982) • Precommunicative Pictures or letters, but random • Semiphonetic Abbreviated spellings, some sounds represented • Phonetic All sounds represented • Transitional Long vowels marked, but not always correctly • Conventional Spelling Mostly correct spellings Gentry, J.R. (1982). An analysis of spelling development in GYNS AT WRK. The Reading Teacher, 36, 192-200.
How does developmental data inform instruction? • Core instruction mirrors developmental sequence • Assessments identify developmental status • Needs-based and intervention programs accelerate development for struggling readers
What does this development really look like? Take a few minutes to put some developmental milestones for kindergarten and first grade in order based on your knowledge of beginning reading. Notice the relationships among alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling.
Principles of Good Phonics Instruction Good phonics instruction should develop the alphabetic principle. Good phonics instruction should develop phonological awareness. Good phonics instruction should provide a thorough grounding in the letters. Good phonics instruction should not teach rules, need not use worksheets, should not dominate instruction, and does not have to be boring. Stahl, Duffy-Hester, & Stahl, 1998
Good phonics instruction provides sufficient practice in reading words, both in isolation and in stories, and in writing words, both from dictation and using invented spelling. Good phonics instruction leads to automatic word recognition. Good phonics instruction is one part of a reading program. Stahl, Duffy-Hester, & Stahl, 1998
To what extent does the phonics instruction in your setting honor these principles? What strategies might you use to improve it?
Take time to identify the most common instructional approaches to teaching phonics. To what extent are these approaches reflected in your phonics curriculum, either singly or in combination?
What does SBRR say about phonics instruction? Goes in a preset, logical order. No matter what the type or types, it has to be systematic and explicit The teacher and the child are clear about the element under study.
National Reading Panel Report General question: What do we know about phonics instruction with sufficient confidence to recommend for classroom use? NRP, 2000
Method NRP, 2000
Sources 38 studies Some type of phonics instruction compared with unsystematic or non-phonics instruction School-based rather than laboratory-based curricula Measure of reading Not used in the PA meta-analysis NRP, 2000
Coding Variables NRP, 2000
Findings Systematic phonics instruction had a significant effect on children’s reading achievement compared to controls. Synthetic, larger-unit (onset-rime), and other phonics programs all were more effective than controls, but no one type of instruction or instructional program was significantly more effective. NRP, 2000
Tutoring, small groups, and whole classes are all effective delivery systems for phonics instruction. Phonics instruction is more effective when it occurs in kindergarten and first grade than later. Phonics instruction is effective for at-risk kindergarteners, at-risk first graders, and disabled students. The findings for older weak readers are confusing. NRP, 2000
Phonics instruction improves students’ ability to read real words, pseudowords, and (to a lesser extent) irregular words. Phonics instruction improves reading comprehension in kindergarteners, first graders, and disabled readers, but not necessarily in older readers. Phonics instruction improves spelling in kindergarten and first grade, but not for older readers. NRP, 2000
Phonics instruction is effective for children at different levels of SES. Phonics instruction was more effective than all forms of control groups (basal, whole language, whole word, regular curriculum). NRP, 2000