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Urban Air Quality in South Asia: Status, Challenges and the Need for Partnerships. Cornie Huizenga Executive Director, CAI-Asia Center ISAS Seminar Singapore, 28 September 2007. Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia A CAI-Asia Program. Outline Presentation. Overview of AQ status in Asia

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urban air quality in south asia status challenges and the need for partnerships

Urban Air Quality in South Asia: Status, Challenges and the Need for Partnerships

Cornie Huizenga

Executive Director, CAI-Asia Center

ISAS Seminar

Singapore, 28 September 2007

Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia

A CAI-Asia Program

Outline Presentation
  • Overview of AQ status in Asia
  • Overview of AQM capabilities in Asia
  • AQ priorities for Asia
  • Introduction into the CAI-Asia Partnership and CAI-Asia Center
Part 1:

Where is (South) Asia in terms of Air Quality?

what is the status of aqm in asia



What is the status of AQM in Asia?


Study Phase 1

Benchmarking Study Phase 2

Country/City Synthesis Reports (CSR)

  • Global benchmarking exercise (75 cities from Asia, Africa and Latin America)
  • Expand to more cities in Asia, e.g. Western China region
  • Update CSRs on two-yearly basis
  • 12 cities in Asia
  • benchmarking using questionnaire and short city profile information
  • 20 cities in Asia
  • updated Phase 1 questionnaire
  • more comprehensive analysis of air quality levels (long-term data), AQ standards and management capabilities of cities
  • 17 countries and 1 city
  • country approach, no scoring of capabilities
  • discussion drafts used as inputs for the 1st Governmental Meeting on Urban Air Quality in Asia
WHO (1979) TSP guideline, 60-90mg/m3

WHO (2005) SO2 24-hour guideline, 20mg/m3

WHO NO2 guideline, 40mg/m3

WHO (2005) PM10 guideline, 20mg/m3

Status of Urban Air Quality in Asia

Aggregated Annual Ambient AQ Trends, mg/m3 (1993 to 2005)

  • Overall ambient air quality trend in Asia continues to improve despite increase in motorization and energy use
  • Average ambient TSP, PM10 and SO2 trends are improving
  • Average ambient TSP and PM10, however, continue to exceed WHO and USEPA guidelines
  • Ambient SO2 in Asia exceeds revised (2005) WHO 2005 guidelines for SO2
  • NO2 close to guidelines
  • Insufficient information on O3 for reliable trend analysis
  • Very little monitoring of VOCs and Heavy Metals.
Annual Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10

WHO 2005 IT-1

WHO 2005 IT-2

WHO 2005 IT-3

WHO 2005



*No annual ambient air quality standards, only 24-hour limits

pm 10 annual ambient concentrations in asian cities vs who 1
2005 value

2006 value

WHO 2005 Guideline Value for Annual Average of PM10 = 20 µg/m3

PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities vs WHO (1)
pm 10 annual ambient concentrations in asian cities vs who 2
2005 value

2006 value

WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 1 = 30 µg/m3

PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities vs WHO (2)
pm 10 annual ambient concentrations in asian cities vs who 3
2005 value

2006 value

WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 2 = 50 µg/m3

PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities vs WHO (3)
economic growth and air pollution trend asia 1992 2006
Economic Growth and Air Pollution Trend: Asia 1992 - 2006

Comparisons of Growth Areas and Urban Emission Concentrations

Electricity Generation, 129%


Energy Consumption, 79%

GDP (constant 1990), 65%

GDP per cap, 45%

Urban population share, 25%


NO2, - 14%

PM10, - 20%

TSP, - 25%

SO2, - 32%


BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2007 - http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview

UN DESA - http://esa.un.org/unpp

Part 2:

Where is (South) Asia in terms of Air Quality Management?

Where is Asia in terms of AQM?
  • Cities with high levels of economic development tend to have well-developed AQM systems
  • Benchmarking of AQM capability can assist cities in setting priorities and developing strategies for strengthening their AQM capability
institutional capabilities
Institutional Capabilities
  • Priorities for environmental protection and management are still weak in Asia, as a consequence institutional capacity for AQM is generally also weak
  • Though decision-makers are becoming more responsive to the clamor of the public for environmental policies, such policies can be hastily drafted and appropriate resources are not usually sufficient to implement the regulations
  • There is also a general lack of national or local training center to provide AQM training or education on a sustained basis
successful control strategies
Successful Control Strategies
  • Many Asian countries have been able to implement vehicle emissions standards and to some extent appropriate fuel quality standards
  • The use of cleaner fuels such as CNG for both the transport and industrial sector have been used to replace dirty fuels
  • Several South Asian cities have been successful in banning dirty 2-stroke three-wheelers
  • China has been able to remove a large number of pollutive SMEs within the city limits
  • Nepal has been successful in relocating dirty brick kilns outside Kathmandu and adopting cleaner brick kiln technologies
Part 3:

AQM priorities for (South) Asia

air pollution linkages of urban national regional and hemispheric scale
Air pollution linkages of urban, national, regional, and hemispheric scale
  • The better understanding of the linkages of urban, national, regional and hemispheric air pollution is important to improve the formulation and implementation of more effective control strategies
  • The increasing interaction between different levels of AQM stakeholders has helped with the transfer of knowledge among Asian countries and the developed world






co benefits approach
Climate Change



Air Quality


Energy Management



Co-benefits Approach

Economic Growth/

Poverty Alleviation

Urban Air Quality Management should be integrated with

Climate Change Mitigation at the Urban Scale

overall goals and priorities for aqm
Overall Goals and Priorities for AQM
  • Overall goal is the improvement of urban air quality while simultaneously ensuring that continued economic growth results in poverty reduction and social development
  • Priorities for Asian cities with relatively lower AQM capability – establishing or strengthening AQ monitoring system and basic control strategies
  • Priorities for Asian cities with higher AQM capability – focus on improving emission data, pursue transportation demand management and integrate local air pollution control measures with transboundary air pollution and GHG abatement
priorities for aqm 1
Priorities for AQM (1)
  • Pollutants of concern
    • Continue the regulation and control of SO2, NO2, CO, and move from TSP control to PM10 and PM2.5
    • Start or intensify the regulation and control of O3
    • Promote more control measures dealing with metals and air toxics
  • Ambient Air Quality and Emissions Standards
    • Update Ambient AQ standards based on the 2005 WHO guideline values
    • Develop standards for PM2.5
    • Establishment of stricter vehicle emissions and fuel quality standards with clear roadmaps for implementation
    • Tighten and enforce emissions standards for heavy-duty vehicles and as well as for motorized 2-3 wheelers
    • Update emissions standards for stationary sources and consider mass-based standards as oppose to volume-based emissions standards
priorities for aqm 2
Priorities for AQM (2)
  • Promote and adoption of a systems approach
    • A systems approach will require more and better AQ monitoring
    • Develop integrated emissions inventories for air pollutants and GHGs
    • Strengthen AQ modeling capacity
  • Analyzing and linking control measures of urban – national – regional – hemispheric air pollution
    • Measures aimed at controlling hemispheric, regional will benefit urban air quality management
    • Adopt regional AQM control approaches, such as those in being done in the Yangtze Delta in Shanghai and the Mumbai-Pune area in India
    • Hemispheric transport of pollutants between Asia, Europe, and North America affects local urban air quality in these continents and control measures to address hemispheric transport also improves urban air quality
priorities for aqm 3
Priorities for AQM (3)
  • AQM Control Strategies
    • Mobile Sources (tail-pipe and non tail-pipe)
      • Establish roadmaps for vehicle emissions and fuel standards which can result to wide-spread implementation of emission control devices and establish comprehensive I/M system
      • Development and adoption of fuel efficiency standards
      • Prioritize improvement of public transportation and non-motorized transportation
      • Develop and implement more transportation demand management measures
    • Stationary Sources
      • Develop and/or update emissions standards for stationary sources and reduce sulfur levels in bunker fuel
      • Control emissions from SMEs
    • Area Sources
      • Adopt measures to control re-suspended dust from road and construction activities
      • Ban open burning of garbage in urban areas
cai asia structure





Asia Partnership





Asia Inc.

Asia Center.



Partnership Council

Partnership Council

Board of

Board of



Civil Society

Civil Society









Executive Director

Executive Director











CAI-Asia Structure
  • Established in 2001, CAI-Asia is widely acknowledged for its role as regional convener and information exchange facilitator on the subject of urban air quality in Asia.
  • To ensure the sustainability of CAI-Asia, a new organizational structure was approved by the CAI-Asia General Assembly in December 2006.
introduction and mission of cai asia center
Introduction and Mission of CAI-Asia Center
  • CAI-Asia Center was established in June 2007 as a non-stock, non-profit corporation in the Philippines
  • CAI-Asia Center shares the mission of the CAI-Asia Partnership i.e. to promote and demonstrate innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian cities through partnerships and sharing experiences
  • CAI-Asia Center business plan aims to contribute to the implementation of the CAI-Asia Partnership Strategy
  • Members of the CAI-Asia Partnership are encouraged to undertake activities to support the implementation of the Partnership Strategy
cai asia partnership membership
CAI-Asia Partnership Membership


Dhaka, Bangladesh

Chittagong, Bangladesh

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Chengdu, China

Chongqing, China

Hangzhou, China

Harbin, China

Guangzhou, China

Tianjin, China

Hyderabad, India

Mumbai, India

Pune, India

Jakarta, Indonesia

Surabaya, Indonesia

Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kathmandu, Nepal

Lahore, Pakistan

Islamabad, Pakistan

MMDA, Philippines

Makati, Philippines

Naga, Philippines

Singapore NEA

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Bangkok, Thailand

Chang Mai, Thailand

Haiphong, Vietnam

Hanoi, Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

  • Government Agencies
  • Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board
  • Balochistan EPA, Pakistan
  • Central Pollution Control Board, India
  • Department of Energy, Philippines
  • Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Philippines
  • Department of Environment, Bangladesh
  • Department of Forest, Ecology and Environment, India
  • Department of Transportation and Communications, Philippines
  • Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, Bangladesh
  • Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Philippines
  • Environmental Management Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Afghanistan
  • Environmental Protection Department of Hong Kong SAR (EPD)
  • Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan
  • Ministry of Environment, Cambodia
  • Ministry of Environment, Indonesia
  • Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Cambodia
  • Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India
  • Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA)
  • Pollution Control Department (PCD), Thailand
  • Sindh Environmental Protection Agency
  • State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA)
  • Vietnam Register
  • 56 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region


Asian Development Bank

German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ)

Government of Finland

Government of Japan

Government of Norway

Government of the Netherlands

Hewlett Foundation

IUCN - The World Conservation Union


The World Bank


United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)




Asian Clean Fuels Association (ACFA)

Corning Incorporated

goals and objectives of the cai asia partnership and center
Capacity Building

Knowledge Management


Policy Development



Goals and Objectives of the CAI-Asia Partnership and Center
  • CAI-Asia adopts a framework that focuses on knowledge management, capacity building, policy development and lobbying and facilitation of increased projects and investments to improve AQ in Asia
cai asia center outputs 2007 2008
CAI-Asia Center Outputs 2007-2008

Organizational Development:

The CAI-Asia Center established as an independent legal entity (i.e., all administrative and financial procedures are functioning smoothly, ensuring its sustainability)

Knowledge Management:

The CAI-Asia Center is accepted as an authoritative, knowledge base on urban air quality in Asia

Capacity Building:

The CAI-Asia Center is able to contribute to the generation of adequate capacity for effective urban AQM in Asia

Networking and Policy Development:

The CAI-Asia Center is able to expand its role as convener of AQM-related policy forums

Investment and Implementation Facilitation:

The CAI-Asia Center has contributed to the identification of financing models for effective urban AQM in Asia and has assisted in raising funds for the development and implementation of AQM programs and projects

existing and planned cai asia local networks
Viet Nam

Clean Air


Viet Nam

Clean Air


Existing and Planned CAI-Asia Local Networks
  • Existing Local Networks
  • China
  • CAI-Asia China Project
  • Indonesia
  • Mitra Emisi Bersih
  • Nepal
  • Clean Air Network-Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Pakistan Clean Air Network
  • Philippines
  • Partnership for Clean Air
  • Sri Lanka
  • CleanAirSL
  • Viet Nam
  • Vietnam Clean Air Partnership
  • Establish New Networks
  • 2007-2008
  • India
  • Mongolia
  • Thailand
  • 2009-2010
  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
roles of local networks
Roles of local networks
  • Centers of knowledge on air quality
  • Facilitators of air quality activities
    • Training
    • Projects
  • Conveners of policy forums
cai asia programs and projects
CAI-Asia Programs and Projects
  • Core Projects
    • Large regional projects with CAI-Asia Center as the direct implementing organization, except in the case of PAPA
  • Projects with CAI-Asia as one of the implementing organizations
  • Programs and projects being developed and implemented with CAI-Asia local networks and other organizations
core cai asia center programs and projects 2007 2009 suma
Core CAI-Asia Center Programs and Projects (2007 – 2009) - SUMA

Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia (SUMA)

  • Program focuses on (i) improving urban air quality, (ii) improving road safety, and (iii) reducing transport’s contribution to climate change
  • The outcome of the program is to accelerate the development of capacity for urban AQM and SUT in through better integration of AQM and SUT in the strategies, policies, programs and projects of developing countries in Asia as well as development agencies
  • The program has 6 key outputs (i) knowledge management, (ii) capacity building, (iii) policy development, (iv) networking, (v) pilot programs and projects, and (vi) program management
  • Implemented in partnership with EMBARQ – WRI, UNCRD, GTZ-SUTP, I-CE, and ITDP and supported by ADB and Sida
core cai asia center programs and projects 2007 2009 m 3
Core CAI-Asia Center Programs and Projects (2007 – 2009) - M3
  • Mainstreaming Cobenefits to Climate Change Mitigation, Energy Management and Air Quality Management in Asia (M3)
    • Project will contribute towards encouraging and enabling the decision-makers in Asia to internalize the linkages between energy management, air quality management and climate change mitigation and start to address them in an integrated manner
    • Expected to be funded by the Government of Norway and will be implemented by the CAI-Asia Center in collaboration with the NILU, SFT, CICERO, ECON, US EPA and AWMA
core cai asia center programs and projects 2007 2009 km ict
Core CAI-Asia Center Programs and Projects(2007 – 2009) KM-ICT
  • Knowledge Management and Information Communication Technology in Advancing AQM in Asia (KM-ICT)
    • Project will (i) establish and support a dedicated online AQ knowledge-base, (ii) build capacity in selected countries through web-based communication applications to help AQM stakeholders; and (iii) facilitate AQM policy development through innovative online communication tools
    • Proposal under development for the ADB’s e-Asia and Knowledge Partnership Fund established by the Government of Korea
core cai asia center programs and projects 2007 2009 papa
Core CAI-Asia Center Programs and Projects(2007 – 2009) PAPA
  • Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) program
    • Program documents and synthesizes existing research on health impacts of urban air pollution in Asia and builds capacity of local scientists to conduct health studies that are of direct use in the decision making process
    • The program started in 2002 and is now coming to a close, however, but Phase 2 is being considered
    • Implemented by HEI through a series of grants from US institutions
better air quality baq workshops
Better Air Quality (BAQ) Workshops

BAQ 2008

November 2008


  • BAQ workshops have become the leading event on urban air quality in Asia.
  • BAQ workshops have had great impact on raising the profile of AQM in Asia.
  • Since 2002 about 2,500 decision makers have participated in BAQ workshops.
  • BAQ workshops have helped to shape policy processes.
  • BAQ 2008 possibly to be organized in Bangkok, Thailand