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The Big Question… • Question: • Where did the “Native Americans” come from? • Answer: • Asia.
The Big BoBo… • Question: • Why are Native Americans called “Indians?” • Answer: • Christopher Columbus made a big mistake...but that’s another story for another day…
a definition: Migration • Migration: when people or animals move from one place to live in another place… • Notice: • Migrate is the root word of immigrate • Migration is the root word of immigration
5 Migration Theories • Two migration theories suggest humans crossed the Pacific Ocean to get to America. • Two migration theories suggest humans crossed the Atlantic Ocean to get to America. • One migration theory suggests humans crossed dry land or ice-covered land to get to America.
BERINGIA • Based on the work of anthropologists and by examining the artifacts found by archaeologists…the most widely accepted migration theory is the Beringia land crossing theory.
three definitions: • Anthropologist: someone who studies people and their culture (the way they live their lives) • Archaeologist: someone who searches for the artifacts of the people of the past • Artifact: anything that was made by a human(tools, weapons, clothes, etc.)
BERINGIA • Beringia is the term used to describe the area between Siberia (in Asia) and Alaska (in North America). • The Bering Strait (water) lies between Siberia and Alaska today. • Anything named “Bering” is named in honor of the Russian explorer, Vitus Bering.
The Last Ice Age • c. 35,000 years ago – the last ice agebegan • Earth’s temperatures fell • glacier ice grew larger and thicker • sea levels fell because water was sucked up and frozen into the glaciers
Migration • c. 30,000 years ago – people began to travel back and forth between Asia and America • probably following animal herds for food • large numbers of people moving to new places is called migration • people who move from place to place are called nomads
Migration, con’t • c. 15,000 years ago – people began shifting further to the south and east • moved into what is the present-day USA • moved through present-day Mexico • settled as far south as present-day Chile
End of the Last Ice Age • c. 10,000 years ago – the last Ice Age began to end • Earth’s temperature began to rise • climates warmed, vegetation and animals began to change • glaciers melted and sea levels rose; Beringia was covered with water
A big discovery… • c. 9,000 years ago – people living in Central America discovered how to cultivate maize • Maize – corn…
The effects of Maize • people who cultivated maize provided an abundant food supply for their family group • encouraged permanent communities • encouraged the growth in population
Native American Cultures • people changed… • from hunting and gathering to farming and herding • from Asian style culture to “Native American” culture
Native American Cultures • “empires” grew…Maya, Aztec, Inca, etc.