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chandelle-daria

FIRST AID - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FIRST AID
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  1. FIRST AID Unit #2 Miss Martini

  2. Emergency Action Principlesshould be done in case of ANY emergency • Check • Scene • Safe? • Clues • # of victims • Bystanders to help • Victim • Injuries • Life threatening conditions • Unconscious • Trouble breathing • Chest pain or pressure • No pulse • Bleeding severely

  3. Call (and get AED) ( If alone, call first then start first aid or CPR) • 911 or local emergency # for ambulance • Give • Exact location • Telephone # • What happened • # and condition of victims • What help is being given • DON’T HANG UP TILL OPERATOR DOES!

  4. Care for victim • Life threatening injuries 1st • Less severe • Help victim stay calm, relaxed

  5. Deciding to Act • Consent to give first aid • Actual consent • Oral or written permission from a mentally sound adult to give first aid • Implied consent • Assuming the victim would grant permission to give first aid if they were capable • Good Samaritan Laws • Protect those who give first aid in good faith • Complete legal protection • Properly trained • Using correct procedures and skills * Purpose is to minimize fear of legal consequences

  6. Universal Precautions • Follow in any situation with possible contact with blood and other bodily fluids • Steps taken to prevent spread of diseases. • Wear disposable latex gloves • Wash hands thoroughly • Use breathing barriers

  7. Checking Unconscious Adult See text pg 723 • Check, Call, Care *SUPINE/ PRONE • “Are you alright?” • “Go call 911.” • Check for Breathing (A, B, C’s) • Look, Listen, Feel (approx. 5 sec) • Open airway (tilt head back, lift chin) • Look for signs of life • (no >10 sec.) • Breathing: recovery position • GASTRIC DISTENTION- • when rescuer is ventilating too hard or too long • Can be minimized by limiting the amount of air ventilated

  8. Checking Conscious Adult • Look for life threatening conditions • “What happened?” • Severe bleeding? • Check head to toe • Note any bleeding, cuts, bruises, bumps, depressions, or pain • Abnormal breathing? • Gasping, gurgling, unusually fast, slow, or painful • Skin looks and feels? • Move each body part that doesn’t hurt • Take deep breathe • Unsure about condition- call emergency # • Comfort victim

  9. Conscious Choking Adult • Victim can no longer speak, cough, breath • “Call 911.” • Five Back blows • Five Abdominal thrusts (if pregnant or obese give chest thrusts) • Stand behind victim • Find belly button • Make fist with other hand • Place thumb side of fist against middle of victims abdomen (just above belly button) • Grab fist with other hand • Quick upward thrusts • Continue alternating until object is up, victim can breath, coughs on own, or victim becomes unconscious

  10. Recognizing a heart attack • Signs • Chest discomfort or pain (may spread to other body areas) • Sweating • Nausea • Shortness of breath • General ill feeling • Deaths are reduced by recognizing early symptoms of heart attack • Call for help • See text pg 739

  11. Cardiac Chain of Survival • 4 links • Early recognition and access to emergency system • call 911 2. Early CPR - keeps blood and oxygen flow to organs, prevents brain damage and death 3. Early Defibrillation - Automated External Defibrillator(AED) - Electronic shock to heart • Give one shock, then 5 cycles CPR (2 min long) • Do not re-check in between shocks and CPR unless you see obvious signs of life (color change, coughing, spitting up, chest moving with breaths) 4. Early Advanced Life support - Paramedics

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) • See text pg 734 • No signs of circulation, No AED, Unconscious • Tap and Shout • “Are you ok?” • “Call 911.” • Open airway (A, B, C’s) • Locate hand position • Find center of sternum, fingers off the chest • Elbows locked

  13. CPR • 30 compressions Ratio 30:2 • 1 1/2 -2 inches deep • Takes about 10 sec (rate of approx 100 per min) • 2 rescue breaths • Lasts about 1 sec each • GASTRIC DISTENTION- • when rescuer is ventilating too hard or too long • Can be minimized by limiting the amount of air ventilated • Once CPR is started continue until • Scene is unsafe • AED available • Too exhausted • Someone takes over (Advanced Life support) • Obvious signs of life (color change, coughing, spitting up, chest moving)

  14. Unconscious Choking Adult • 2 rescue breaths don’t go in, reposition, try again, still don’t go, assume airway is blocked • Find hand position • 30 chest compressions • Look for object • Grasp tongue and lower jaw b/t thumb & fingers, lift up • Finger sweep if you see something • 2 rescue breaths • If don’t go in continue with 30 compressions • Repeat above process

  15. Unconscious Choking Adult • Stop cycles if • Object removed • Chest rises with rescue breaths • Check for signs of circulation • If none continue with compressions and breaths • Victim starts breathing on own • EMS arrives & takes over

  16. Injuries • Check • Scene • Victim • Life threatening • Head to toe • Call 911 • Care • Give care until help arrives

  17. Injuries • Types • Wounds/ Burns (Soft Tissue) • Muscle, Bone, & Joint

  18. Bleeding • Use Latex Gloves • Arterial- bright red (oxygenated) • Venous- darker blood ** Approximately 2 pint per 25 pounds

  19. Care for Wounds (External Bleeding) • Minor Wounds • Cleaned & covered • Open Wounds • Control bleeding • Prevent infection • Clean & cover • Closed Wounds • Apply cold • Major Wounds • Call “911” and control bleeding

  20. Clues to Internal Bleeding • Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body • Cool, moist, pale or bluish skin • Vomiting or coughing up blood • Excessive thirst • Confused, faint, drowsy, or unconscious ** Serious Internal Bleeding- Call “911” immediately

  21. Muscles, Bones, & Joints • Muscles • Strain: tearing or stretching of muscles or tendons • Tendons- strong fibers that attach muscle to bone • Bones • Fracture: a break, chip, or crack in a bone • Types: • Open (compound) • Closed (simple) • Symptoms: Deformity, snap, and pain may be present

  22. Muscles, Bones, & Joints • Joints • Sprain: tearing of ligaments at a joint • Wrist, knee, ankle, & finger • Ligaments- strong, tough, soft tissue bands that attach bone to bone • Dislocation: the movement of a bone out of its position in the joint. Usually caused by a violent force tearing the ligaments that hold the bone in place. • Finger • Apply ice, immobilize and go to doctor • **** Do not try to pull it out

  23. Muscles, Bones, & Joints • Signs of severe injury: • Can not move or use body part • A snap or a pop is heard • Bone is visible • Significant bruising, swelling, or deformity

  24. Care for Muscle, Bone & Joint Injuries • R- Rest • I- Immobilize (splint) • C- Cold • Apply cold for up to 72 hours • 20 min on 20 min off • E- Elevate ** Keep part immobile, if have to move victim, 1st splint injury. Do not elevate a severe injury unless it has been splinted

  25. Shock (see text pg 733) • Circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body • Life threatening condition • Types • Insulin • Traumatic (sudden injury) • Anaphylactic (sting)

  26. Shock • Signals of Traumatic Shock • Restlessness or irritability • Altered consciousness • Pale, cool, moist skin (clammy) • Looks disoriented • Rapid breathing (irregular shallow) • Rapid pulse • Dilated pupils • Best treatment- lie victim down, elevate legs, cover lightly

  27. Caring for Shock • Lie down and rest • Control external bleeding • Maintain normal body temp • Elevate legs if injuries allow • Only water at room temperature • Make sure advanced help is on the way

  28. Control Bleeding • Cover with a dressing and press firmly, applying direct pressure • Cover dressing with non-stick bandage (rollar/ pressure bandage) w/ direct pressure • If bleeding doesn’t stop • Add additional dressings over top of original dressings • Don’t remove objects lodged in wound.

  29. Immobilizing Muscle, Bone & Joint Injuries • Splint: technique used to keep injured part from moving • Types • Anatomic- Uses another part of victims body • Soft- easily shaped to injured area to minimize movement • Rigid- hard object that minimizes movement

  30. Splinting • Only if victim must be moved • Only if you can do without causing more pain • Splint in position you found it • Splint above and below site of injury • Check for proper circulation before and after splinting (feeling, warmth, & color)

  31. Steps to Splinting • Support injured area • Check circulation (feeling, warmth, color) • Place splint • Tie splint in place • Recheck circulation

  32. Sudden Illness • Stroke – blocked or broken blood vessels in brain • Seizure • Do not hold or restrain victim • Do not place anything in their mouth • Remove objects that may cause injury • Diabetic Emergency • Help victim remain calm & get medication • Poisoning/ Allergic Reactions • Call 911 & Poison Control #

  33. Caring for Sudden Illnesses • Care for life threatening conditions • Have victim rest in comfortable position • Keep from getting chilled or over heated • No food or water • Reassure victim • Send someone to meet EMS • Ask about medical conditions & medications • Monitor, try to minimize risk of shock • Watch for changes in consciousness or breathing