“WHAT IS YOGA?” • Yoga is a word from the ancient Sanskrit langue that means Union, the attachment and merger of the individual human consciousness with the cosmic consciousness. • The word Yoga is also used to describe the difference Yogic Techniques employed, the difference disciplines that are used to facilitate the awareness and experience of the body, mind and spirit integration. Yogacharya. "Sanskrit Words: An Introduction to the Ancient Language of Yoga - Integral Yoga Magazine." Integral Yoga Magazine. Integral Yoga Magazine, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014.
The history of Yoga in four broad categories: • Vedic Yoga- • Preclassical Yoga- • Classical Yoga- • Postclassical Yoga-
First Documented Pose Five mysterious "Pashupati" (Hindu god Shiva) seais depict the seated pose Mulabandhasana. Found in the ruins of northwest India's Harappan culture. Shaw, E. (2010). From the caves of India to the White House lawn, Yoga Journal celebrates 6, 000 years of practice in 35 moMents. Yoga Journal, (231), 88-96.
Bring the feet a few inches away from the pubic bone. • Press the feet into each other, but pull the toes back away from each other. • Lift the heels off the floor and hold the outsides of the feet with the hands. • Lift the heels vertical and in toward the hips. Bring the mounds of the toes to the floor. • Place both hands to the floor behind the hips. Lift the hips up and forward until the feet are vertical. • Lower the hips and knees to the floor. • Place the palms together in front of the chest. Look forward. Hold the pose and breathe. • To come out, release the hands next to the hips. Use the hands to lift the hips and release the feet.
Indus-Sarasvati civilization • a culture that we now know extended over an area of roughly 300,000 square miles. • This was in fact the largest civilization in early antiquity. • In the ruins of the big cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, excavators found depictions engraved on soapstone seals that strongly resemble yogi-like figures. • Many other finds show the amazing continuity between that civilization and later Hindu society and culture.
Vedic Yoga • The ancient texts of Vedas are the oldest scriptures in the world. • The Sanskrit word Veda means "knowledge" and rig means "praise“. • Thus the Rig Vedas are a collection of hymns that are in praise of a higher power. • Other three Vedas Yajur Veda (knowledge of sacrifice) Sama Veda (Knowledge of chants) Atharvana Veda (knowledge of Atharvana)
Vedic Yoga can also be called Archaic Yoga, as people believed in a ritualistic way of life. Rituals, sacrifices, and ceremonies existed because they were considered a means of connection to the spirit world. People turned to rishis or Vedic yogis for illumination. Vedic masters were blessed with a vision of the supreme reality and their hymns speak of their marvelous intuitions.
PRE-CLASSICAL • This covers an extensive period of approximately 2,000 years until the second century. • Gnostic texts, called the Upanishads, that spoke in detail about the self and ultimate reality appeared. • There are approximately 200 Upanishads. • Yoga scriptures is the Bhagavad-Gita, which was composed around 500 B.C. The central teaching of the Gita is, to do ones' duty and not expect the fruit of the action.
PRE-CLASSICAL • In 1200 BC the great teacher Rishaba, who was the exponent of the tradition of Jainism, also emphasized on efforts dedicated to the liberation of the spirit. • It was during this time, that Yoga found its way into Buddhism too; Lord Buddha was the first Buddhist to study Yoga. Buddhist scriptures lay stress on meditation and physical postures, which are Yogic processes.
Classical Yoga • In the second century C.E, Patanjali composed the yoga sutras, which consists of 195 aphorisms. • They expound the Raja yoga or the eight-fold path, which are meant to be memorized, as it is not in written form. • The earliest known Sanskrit commentary on the sutras is Yoga- Bhashya (speech on Yoga), by Vyasa in the fifth century
Patanjali's Eightfold path of Yoga • Yama, which means social restraints or ethical values; • Niyama, which is personal observance of purity, tolerance, and study; • Asanas or physical exercises; • Pranayama, which means breath control or regulation; • Pratyahara or sense withdrawal in preparation for Meditation; • Dharana, which is about concentration; • Dhyana, which means Meditation; • Samadhi, which means ecstasy.
Patanjali believed that each individual is composed of matter (prakriti) and spirit (purusha). He advocated that yoga would restore the spirit to its absolute reality, a teaching that saw a shift from non dualism to dualism
POST CLASSICAL • The earlier eras saw yogis laying emphasis only on meditation and contemplation. • Their goal was to shed their mortal coils and merge with the infinite; but, during this period, yogis began to probe the hidden powers of the body. • Yoga masters designed advanced yogic practices that would rejuvenate the body and prolong its life. • This led to Hatha Yoga, which is presently practised throughout the world
Cites sheet Yogacharya. "Sanskrit Words: An Introduction to the Ancient Language of Yoga - Integral Yoga Magazine." Integral Yoga Magazine. Integral Yoga Magazine, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. Shaw, E. (2010). From the caves of India to the White House lawn, Yoga Journal celebrates 6, 000 years of practice in 35 moMents. Yoga Journal, (231), 88-96.