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AGRON / MTEOR 404 Global Change. Changes to Water Resources Raymond Arritt Department of Agronomy. Effects of water resources. erosion Timing in crop growth cycle Runoff – wastewater treatment, pollution Groundwater depletion, subsidence Distribution of rainfall, shifting patterns

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agron mteor 404 global change

AGRON / MTEOR 404Global Change

Changes to Water Resources

Raymond Arritt

Department of Agronomy

effects of water resources
Effects of water resources
  • erosion
  • Timing in crop growth cycle
  • Runoff – wastewater treatment, pollution
  • Groundwater depletion, subsidence
  • Distribution of rainfall, shifting patterns
  • Hydropower (energy)
  • Distribution of ecosystems; desertification
slide3

Effect on flood plains

  • Water ownership – who gets to use it?
  • Ecology and biodiversity – new species introduced, take over and lose diversity
  • Shift in rainfall patterns (wet and dry regions)
  • Sustainable development – building
slide4

Irrigation systems – change in demand

  • Energy production – cooling water for powerplants and industry
  • Water conservation awareness
  • Snowmaking for ski areas
  • Dams and storage
  • Glaciers
  • How do we get people to understand?
a simple surface water budget
A simple surface water budget

Precipitation – Evaporation = Runoff + D Storage

storage includes lots of things:

soil moisture, aquifers, reservoirs, withdrawals for irrigation, glaciers, snowpack, etc.

slide8

Change in annual runoff

2041-2060 compared to 1900-1970

Where do we see increases in runoff?

Where do we see decreases?

water resource stress without climate change
Water resource stress without climate change

Current

2055

(IPCC A2 scenario)

change in water resource stress with climate change
Change in water resource stress with climate change

results from two different climate models

reduced water stress in tropical regions

increased water stress outside the tropics

what is drought
What is drought?
  • One definition:
  • Elements of the definition:
    • deficiency of precipitation
    • extended period (how long is "extended"?)
    • water shortage for some user ("group or activity")

A deficiency of precipitation over an extended period that causes water shortage for some group or activity.

drought depends on the user
Drought depends on the user
  • Crops rely on stored soil water. Soil water can be rapidly depleted, so that monthly droughts may affect crops.
drought depends on the user1

Arnie!

I found your keys!

Drought depends on the user
  • Rivers and streams may dry out during seasonal droughts.
drought depends on the user2
Drought depends on the user
  • Multi-year droughts may deplete ground water that supports communities.
drought more precisely
Drought, more precisely
  • Must define the time periodover which precipitation is below normal.
  • Must define what is a water shortagethat affects a particular activity.
iowa corn yields
Iowa corn yields

1988 drought

1993 flood

remember
Remember
  • Changes to water resources depend on more than just the change in rainfall.
  • Whether a change is good, bad, or neutral depends on who we are and what we’re interested in.