Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications

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Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications

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  1. Shailesh A. Shah Marketing Director, Military Joint Services Power Expo May 2-5, 2005 Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications Millennium Cell, Inc. One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724 shah@millenniumcell.com 732-544-5739

  2. Outline • Millennium Cell (MCEL) – company overview • Hydrogen storage/generation via sodium borohydride • Hydrogen on Demand® Technology • Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison • Prototype Development • P1 Cartridge Test Results

  3. Millennium Cell Company Overview • We are developers of hydrogen energy systems for use primarily in portable electronics devices for consumer, military, medical, and industrial markets. • 25 patents issued to date • Over 40 patent applications submitted and still pending • Public offering in August 2000 (Nasdaq: MCEL), currently 40 people working in Eatontown, NJ and Washington DC. • 23 in technical organization; • 9 Ph.D.s company wide Announced relationships:

  4. Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (SBH)Hydrogen on Demand® Reaction NaBH4 (aq) + 2 H2O  4 H2 + NaBO2 (aq) + heat cat An energy-dense water-based chemical hydride fuel Proprietary catalyst induces rapid H2 production High purity humidified H2 Borate can be recycled into NaBH4 or can be disposed of Exothermic reaction requires no heat input • Hydrogen is generated in a controllable, heat-releasing reaction • Fuel is an ambient pressure, room-temperature, non-flammable liquid • Hydrogen generated via this processis of high purity (no carbon monoxide or sulfur) and is humidified (heat generates some water vapor) • U.S. Patent 6,534,033: “System for Hydrogen Generation”

  5. Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4)Schematic of Hydrogen on Demand® Technology 1. Borohydride Fuel is pumped or moved from a tank through a chamber containing MCEL’s proprietary catalyst. 2. The fuel is converted into pure hydrogen, water vapor, and borate (NaBO2). 3. The temperature and humidity of the hydrogen stream are adjustable. Humidified hydrogen is sent to the fuel cell. 4. The fuel cell creates power and water. This water can be recycled within the system. Allows for higher fuel concentrations. Gas/Liquid Separator Fuel Pump Catalyst Reactor Hydrogen + Water Vapor Fuel tank: NaBH4 solution H2 Discharged fuel area: NaBO2 Water from Fuel Cell Borate (NaBO2) borate H2O Hydrogen + Water Vapor Coolant Loop (optional) Fuel Cell Pure Humidified H2 Heat Exchanger Electric Power Oxygen from Air

  6. Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison • Zn/Air, today 300 Wh/kg • Li/SO2, today 170 Wh/kg • Li-Ion, today 110 Wh/kg • DMFC • fuel only, today (15%) 900 Wh/kg • fuel only, projected (25%) 1500 Wh/kg • RMFC (0.7 V fuel cell, 75% conversion) • fuel only (64%), projected 1440 Wh/kg • HOD/PEM (0.7 V fuel cell, 95% conversion) • Practical dry fuel for shipping, today 3900 Wh/kg • Practical fuel only (20%) energy density today 760 Wh/kg • Practical fuel only (35%) energy density projected 1330 Wh/kg

  7. Comparison of HOD + PEM to Methanol-based Systems

  8. M2 Consumer Electronics Demonstrator Prototype Demonstrated at Intel Developers’ Forum, Mar 2005 • ~135 Wh/L and ~130 Wh/kg fuel system • Demonstration prototype – fuel volume non-optimized • NBPC scale power (20 W), 3 hr runtime @ 11 W nom • 33 Wh scale system, 245 cc

  9. Protonex P1 Full SystemCartridge attachment Demonstrated: > 350 Wh/L and > 350 Wh/kg complete system • 30 W Net Power, >15 Hour Runtime per cartridge • 465 Wh net single cartridge only  1.1 L, 1.25 kg

  10. Energy Cartridge: Interface detail 7.9 cm 8.8 cm Fuel/borate area Electrical Interface Air Filter Catalyst Reactor 16.8 cm Hydrogen Interface Pressure Relief Valve Fill Port Fuel Pump Interface

  11. Cartridge Testing • Fuel Cell Simulator • Mimics FC interface • Adjusts H2 demand • Monitors cartridge metrics • Over 250 hours of test

  12. Cartridge Testing – Typical Data

  13. Cartridge Testing – Start Up • Fuel Cell Simulator Start up ~60 s • Fuel Cell System Start up ~20 s

  14. Cold Temperature Cartridge Operation Operation at 20 °C and 5 °C • No change in conversion • No change in fuel utilization • Startup time increased to ~ 120 s

  15. Protonex P1 Status and P2 Technology Improvements Achieved! • P1 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 350 - 380 Wh/kg • P2 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 425 - 500 Wh/kg • Packaging efficiency • Water recovery • Custom components • Dry SBH fuel cartridges can be mixed on-site as needed • Indefinite storage life • Ability to use field water to be studied • Substantial energy density increase when shipping dry cartridges

  16. Fuel Cell Portable Power Systemsfor Military ApplicationsJoint Services Power ExpoMay 2-5, 2005Greg CiprianoVP Marketing & Military Development

  17. Protonex Facts MISSION • Focus on apps where fuel cells make sense • Where batteries & IC engines do not work well • Design for performance, manufacturability and cost TARGET MARKET • Portable and remote applications • High-performance power, 10 – 500 Watts RESULT • “Best-in-class” power systems vs. alternatives • Leading metrics and fieldable costs • Functional prototypes exist today

  18. 10 Watt 1000 Watt 10,000 Watt Power Range Focus Battery Curve Protonex Fuel Cell Curve Cell Phone Fuel cells do well here PDA Cost/Watt-hr IC Engine Curve Laptop Soldier Power Small Generator UPS Residential Auto

  19. Fuel Cell Benefits • Reduced weight • Extended runtimes • Reduced size • Lower life cycle cost • Greater fuel efficiency • Reduced emissions • Lower noise level • Lower heat signature VALUE POINTS for Protonex fuel cell based power solutions

  20. Potential Military Applications

  21. Protonex Military Activity • Army Research Office • Development program for next generation sub-kW stacks, 18 months • Army Research Lab • Development program for advanced DMFC fuel cell stacks, 2 yrs • Air Force Research Lab • Dual Use Science & Technology, 18 months • BAO kit power system using chemical hydride fuel • Naval Research Lab • Feasibility demonstrated on UAV power system, ongoing work • TARDEC • Prototype development for mobile robots • SOCOM • Silent Auxiliary Power Unit just awarded • Military Primes • Multiple joint development programs starting and in discussion

  22. Protonex Stack Breakthrough 20 W ~ 1992 20 W ~ 2003

  23. Protonex Stacks = Best-in-Class • H2 PEM technology • Compact • Lightweight • Low Cost • Robust • Reliable • Injection Moldable • Patents Pending 3000 Series Family 50-200 Watts Protonex Stacks are Highly Durable

  24. Stack Life Test 4000 hrs • Man portable target system lifetime = 2000 hrs operation, Phase I • Degradation corresponds to loss of ~1.5% efficiency at 2000 hours

  25. NGen™ Systems Fuel Cell Power Systems • Fuel Cell Stack • Balance of Plant • Air, Cooling, Controls • Fuel System (HW and fuel) • Chemical Hydrides • Methanol Reformers • H2 or Metal Hydrides Protonex Systems are • Small & lightweight • Efficient & durable • Manufacturable • Easy to embed in app’s 30 Watt System Prototype Stack superiority and simplicity enable the use of available balance of plant components. Strong systems knowledge and capabilities allow selection, integration and commercialization of best-in-class fuel technologies to deliver complete power systems to applications.

  26. System Examples: 30-500W

  27. System Testing Systems tested -10 to 50°C and 1000 hrs to date

  28. Industry First 30W System FIRST integrated chemical hydride fuel cell system TODAY: 350-380 Whr/kg and TRL5 Q4 2005: 425-500 Whr/kg and TRL6-7 72 hour mission @ 30Watts continuous

  29. Protonex Value Proposition NEED: 30 watts continuous for 72hr mission Protonex Fuel Cell System Systems required: 1 Cartridges required: 6 Total weight: 7.9 lbs Total volume: 4.3 liters Cost/mission: $433 BA5590 Batteries (today) Units required: 13 Total weight: 29.3 lbs Total volume: 11.2 liters Cost/mission: $1,040 Savings: 60% on cost 62% on size 73% on weight Impact: Significantly Decreased Logistics Burden

  30. Life Cycle Cost Details • Lower life cycle cost vs. batteries • Practical capital costs <$1500 @ 5K units • Low cost COTS and FC components • Design for manufacture focus • Highly durable, low maintenance • Tested 4,000 hrs (10,000 hrs possible) • Low cost fuel cartridges • Chemical hydride is safe, non-flammable • Recycle cartridges for training • Discard cartridges for battle

  31. Strategic Partners • Parker Hannifin – volume mfg of Protonex systems and key components (60 mfg. plants worldwide) • Millennium Cell – co-develop fuel cartridge w/Protonex • Dow – volume mfg of Protonex fuel cartridges

  32. Recent Milestones • System prototypes built from 10 to 500W • Over 600 stacks built • Life testing over 4,000 hours • Demonstrated integrated fueling system • Multiple joint development projects • Several high profile military program awards • Military evaluations in progress • New 12,000 sq.ft. facility • 9 patents pending

  33. Summary - Our Strengths • “Best in Class” fuel cell power systems for OEM’s • Leading product metrics • Low system cost points enabling adoption • Strong customer focus • Product oriented, not just R&D • NGen™ patent pending technology • Comprehensive suite of strategic partners • Strong military activity & support • Strong private venture funding (matching $) • History of delivering to commitments

  34. Contact Information Greg Cipriano VP Marketing & Military Development greg.cipriano@protonex.com 508.490.9960 x208 Protonex Technology Corporation 153 Northboro Road Southborough, MA 01772 www.protonex.com