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Shailesh A. Shah Marketing Director, Military. Joint Services Power Expo May 2-5, 2005. Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications. Millennium Cell, Inc. One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724 732-544-5739. Outline.

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Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications

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chemical hydride based pem fuel cells for for portable power applications

Shailesh A. Shah

Marketing Director, Military

Joint Services Power Expo

May 2-5, 2005

Chemical Hydride Based PEM Fuel Cells for for Portable Power Applications

Millennium Cell, Inc.

One Industrial Way West, Eatontown, NJ 07724


  • Millennium Cell (MCEL) – company overview
  • Hydrogen storage/generation via sodium borohydride
      • Hydrogen on Demand® Technology
  • Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison
  • Prototype Development
  • P1 Cartridge Test Results
millennium cell company overview
Millennium Cell Company Overview
  • We are developers of hydrogen energy systems for use primarily in portable electronics devices for consumer, military, medical, and industrial markets.
      • 25 patents issued to date
      • Over 40 patent applications submitted and still pending
  • Public offering in August 2000 (Nasdaq: MCEL), currently 40 people working in Eatontown, NJ and Washington DC.
      • 23 in technical organization;
      • 9 Ph.D.s company wide

Announced relationships:

hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride sbh hydrogen on demand reaction
Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (SBH)Hydrogen on Demand® Reaction

NaBH4 (aq) + 2 H2O  4 H2 + NaBO2 (aq) + heat


An energy-dense water-based chemical hydride fuel

Proprietary catalyst induces rapid H2 production

High purity humidified H2

Borate can be recycled into NaBH4 or can be disposed of

Exothermic reaction requires no heat input

  • Hydrogen is generated in a controllable, heat-releasing reaction
  • Fuel is an ambient pressure, room-temperature, non-flammable liquid
  • Hydrogen generated via this processis of high purity (no carbon monoxide or sulfur) and is humidified (heat generates some water vapor)
  • U.S. Patent 6,534,033: “System for Hydrogen Generation”
hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride nabh 4 schematic of hydrogen on demand technology
Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4)Schematic of Hydrogen on Demand® Technology

1. Borohydride Fuel is pumped or moved from a tank through a chamber containing MCEL’s proprietary catalyst.

2. The fuel is converted into pure hydrogen, water vapor, and borate (NaBO2).

3. The temperature and humidity of the hydrogen stream are adjustable. Humidified hydrogen is sent to the fuel cell.

4. The fuel cell creates power and water. This water can be recycled within the system. Allows for higher fuel concentrations.

Gas/Liquid Separator

Fuel Pump

Catalyst Reactor

Hydrogen + Water Vapor

Fuel tank: NaBH4 solution


Discharged fuel area: NaBO2

Water from Fuel Cell

Borate (NaBO2)



Hydrogen + Water Vapor

Coolant Loop (optional)

Fuel Cell

Pure Humidified H2

Heat Exchanger

Electric Power

Oxygen from Air

gravimetric energy density comparison
Gravimetric Energy Density Comparison
  • Zn/Air, today 300 Wh/kg
  • Li/SO2, today 170 Wh/kg
  • Li-Ion, today 110 Wh/kg
  • DMFC
    • fuel only, today (15%) 900 Wh/kg
    • fuel only, projected (25%) 1500 Wh/kg
  • RMFC (0.7 V fuel cell, 75% conversion)
    • fuel only (64%), projected 1440 Wh/kg
  • HOD/PEM (0.7 V fuel cell, 95% conversion)
    • Practical dry fuel for shipping, today 3900 Wh/kg
    • Practical fuel only (20%) energy density today 760 Wh/kg
    • Practical fuel only (35%) energy density projected 1330 Wh/kg
m2 consumer electronics demonstrator prototype
M2 Consumer Electronics Demonstrator Prototype

Demonstrated at Intel Developers’ Forum, Mar 2005

  • ~135 Wh/L and ~130 Wh/kg fuel system
    • Demonstration prototype – fuel volume non-optimized
    • NBPC scale power (20 W), 3 hr runtime @ 11 W nom
    • 33 Wh scale system, 245 cc
protonex p1 full system cartridge attachment
Protonex P1 Full SystemCartridge attachment


> 350 Wh/L and > 350 Wh/kg complete system

  • 30 W Net Power, >15 Hour Runtime per cartridge
  • 465 Wh net single cartridge only  1.1 L, 1.25 kg
energy cartridge interface detail
Energy Cartridge: Interface detail

7.9 cm

8.8 cm

Fuel/borate area

Electrical Interface

Air Filter

Catalyst Reactor

16.8 cm

Hydrogen Interface

Pressure Relief Valve

Fill Port

Fuel Pump Interface

cartridge testing
Cartridge Testing
  • Fuel Cell Simulator
    • Mimics FC interface
    • Adjusts H2 demand
    • Monitors cartridge metrics
  • Over 250 hours of test
cartridge testing start up
Cartridge Testing – Start Up
  • Fuel Cell Simulator Start up ~60 s
  • Fuel Cell System Start up ~20 s
cold temperature cartridge operation
Cold Temperature Cartridge Operation

Operation at 20 °C and 5 °C

  • No change in conversion
  • No change in fuel utilization
  • Startup time increased to ~ 120 s
protonex p1 status and p2 technology improvements
Protonex P1 Status and P2 Technology Improvements


  • P1 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 350 - 380 Wh/kg
  • P2 energy density goal for 72 h/30 W mission: 425 - 500 Wh/kg
    • Packaging efficiency
    • Water recovery
    • Custom components
  • Dry SBH fuel cartridges can be mixed on-site as needed
    • Indefinite storage life
    • Ability to use field water to be studied
    • Substantial energy density increase when shipping dry cartridges

Fuel Cell Portable Power Systemsfor Military ApplicationsJoint Services Power ExpoMay 2-5, 2005Greg CiprianoVP Marketing & Military Development

protonex facts
Protonex Facts


  • Focus on apps where fuel cells make sense
  • Where batteries & IC engines do not work well
  • Design for performance, manufacturability and cost


  • Portable and remote applications
  • High-performance power, 10 – 500 Watts


  • “Best-in-class” power systems vs. alternatives
  • Leading metrics and fieldable costs
  • Functional prototypes exist today
power range focus

10 Watt

1000 Watt

10,000 Watt

Power Range Focus

Battery Curve

Protonex Fuel

Cell Curve



Fuel cells do well here



IC Engine










fuel cell benefits
Fuel Cell Benefits
  • Reduced weight
  • Extended runtimes
  • Reduced size
  • Lower life cycle cost
  • Greater fuel efficiency
  • Reduced emissions
  • Lower noise level
  • Lower heat signature

VALUE POINTS for Protonex fuel cell based power solutions

protonex military activity
Protonex Military Activity
  • Army Research Office
    • Development program for next generation sub-kW stacks, 18 months
  • Army Research Lab
    • Development program for advanced DMFC fuel cell stacks, 2 yrs
  • Air Force Research Lab
    • Dual Use Science & Technology, 18 months
    • BAO kit power system using chemical hydride fuel
  • Naval Research Lab
    • Feasibility demonstrated on UAV power system, ongoing work
    • Prototype development for mobile robots
    • Silent Auxiliary Power Unit just awarded
  • Military Primes
    • Multiple joint development programs starting and in discussion
protonex stack breakthrough
Protonex Stack Breakthrough

20 W ~ 1992

20 W ~ 2003

protonex stacks best in class
Protonex Stacks = Best-in-Class
  • H2 PEM technology
  • Compact
  • Lightweight
  • Low Cost
  • Robust
  • Reliable
  • Injection Moldable
  • Patents Pending

3000 Series Family 50-200 Watts

Protonex Stacks are Highly Durable

stack life test 4000 hrs
Stack Life Test 4000 hrs
  • Man portable target system lifetime = 2000 hrs operation, Phase I
  • Degradation corresponds to loss of ~1.5% efficiency at 2000 hours
ngen systems
NGen™ Systems

Fuel Cell Power Systems

  • Fuel Cell Stack
  • Balance of Plant
    • Air, Cooling, Controls
  • Fuel System (HW and fuel)
    • Chemical Hydrides
    • Methanol Reformers
    • H2 or Metal Hydrides

Protonex Systems are

  • Small & lightweight
  • Efficient & durable
  • Manufacturable
  • Easy to embed in app’s

30 Watt System Prototype

Stack superiority and simplicity enable the use of available balance of plant components. Strong systems knowledge and capabilities allow selection, integration and commercialization of best-in-class fuel technologies to deliver complete power systems to applications.

system testing
System Testing

Systems tested -10 to 50°C and 1000 hrs to date

industry first 30w system
Industry First 30W System

FIRST integrated chemical hydride fuel cell system

TODAY: 350-380 Whr/kg and TRL5

Q4 2005: 425-500 Whr/kg and TRL6-7

72 hour mission @ 30Watts continuous

protonex value proposition
Protonex Value Proposition

NEED: 30 watts continuous for 72hr mission

Protonex Fuel Cell System

Systems required: 1

Cartridges required: 6

Total weight: 7.9 lbs

Total volume: 4.3 liters

Cost/mission: $433

BA5590 Batteries (today)

Units required: 13

Total weight: 29.3 lbs

Total volume: 11.2 liters

Cost/mission: $1,040

Savings: 60% on cost 62% on size 73% on weight

Impact: Significantly Decreased Logistics Burden

life cycle cost details
Life Cycle Cost Details
  • Lower life cycle cost vs. batteries
    • Practical capital costs <$1500 @ 5K units
      • Low cost COTS and FC components
      • Design for manufacture focus
      • Highly durable, low maintenance
      • Tested 4,000 hrs (10,000 hrs possible)
    • Low cost fuel cartridges
      • Chemical hydride is safe, non-flammable
      • Recycle cartridges for training
      • Discard cartridges for battle
strategic partners
Strategic Partners
  • Parker Hannifin – volume mfg of Protonex systems and key components (60 mfg. plants worldwide)
  • Millennium Cell – co-develop fuel cartridge w/Protonex
  • Dow – volume mfg of Protonex fuel cartridges
recent milestones
Recent Milestones
  • System prototypes built from 10 to 500W
  • Over 600 stacks built
  • Life testing over 4,000 hours
  • Demonstrated integrated fueling system
  • Multiple joint development projects
  • Several high profile military program awards
  • Military evaluations in progress
  • New 12,000 sq.ft. facility
  • 9 patents pending
summary our strengths
Summary - Our Strengths
  • “Best in Class” fuel cell power systems for OEM’s
    • Leading product metrics
    • Low system cost points enabling adoption
  • Strong customer focus
  • Product oriented, not just R&D
  • NGen™ patent pending technology
  • Comprehensive suite of strategic partners
  • Strong military activity & support
  • Strong private venture funding (matching $)
  • History of delivering to commitments
contact information
Contact Information

Greg Cipriano

VP Marketing & Military Development

508.490.9960 x208

Protonex Technology Corporation

153 Northboro Road

Southborough, MA 01772