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Integrating social vulnerability into research on food systems and global change Stuart Franklin – SEI Oxford. Research questions. What are the conceptual underpinnings integrating human and natural vulnerability and global environmental change?
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European colonial expansion
RISKS OF NEW SCIENCE
1960s and 70s
1983 “Silent Violence” Michael Watts.
1985 “The Wheat Trap” Andrae and Beckman.
1985 “The Politics of Soil Erosion . .”
HAZARDPRESSURE RELEASE MODEL(After Blaikie et al. 1994/Wisner et al. 2003)Vulnerability – context of hazards
Narrative theory: problem – people not living organisms
V = the general
V = the particular
In connection with global environmental change. The term ‘global’ masks the particular local stresses and stressors.
Figure 2. Scalar mapping of the impact of the 1983 Krakatoa volcanic eruption. Krakatoa-linked climate change vulnerability (in a general sense) had a global reach. In a particular sense people were differentially vulnerable to, for example, cold or crop failure.
Eg. Legal ethics
Eg. Medical ethics,
Eg. Minamata Disease victims, fishermen
Figure 4. Actor Network Theory: Framing contractual systems between (A: the State, B: the local State, C: the firm producing waste methyl mercury) -
(a)minus externalities (X,Y,Z); (b) plus certain externalities; (c) plus other externalities (Xn,Yn,Zn). Based on Minamata Disease case example.
-justice as fairness. ‘Moral persons are entitled to equal justice’ - equal rights to equal basic liberties above regulating economic and social inequalities. Opposed to Gandhi (1940) equal distrib.
Problems with Rawls: social justice focuses on material goods, not agency/ decision-making power. Also, top-down idea. Who chooses who is entitled. Iris Marion Young – Justice and the Politics of Difference (1990)
Relativist vs. universal understanding of human need. Universal goal = avoidance of harm. Vulnerability = susceptibility to harm.
relative appraisal of intermediate needs such as cultural skills.
Nurturing diversity and connectivity
Creating opportunities for self-organization
Learning to live with change and uncertainty
Adaptation involves capacity building with the aim of enhancing resilience