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Franklin April 30th. Long Term Goal. Develop systems of support for all students, integrated with tiered academic and behavioral framework to reduce barriers to learning and improve academic achievement. Today’s Outcomes. Be able to articulate the “Why” of MBI

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long term goal
Long Term Goal
  • Develop systems of support for all students, integrated with tiered academic and behavioral framework to reduce barriers to learning and improve academic achievement.
today s outcomes
Today’s Outcomes

Be able to articulate the “Why” of MBI

Develop understanding of how trauma affects student learning

Critically review MBI classroom activities to date

Develop strategies to improve classroom teaching of procedures and routines

why video
Why Video

Activity after Why Video?

the rti mbi process a system that supports academic and behavioral success
The RTI/MBI Process: A System that Supports Academic and Behavioral Success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Of longer duration
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive











our challenge
Our Challenge…
  • Low intensity, low fidelity interventions for behavior/emotional needs
  • Habitual use of restrictive settings (and poor outcomes) for youth with disabilities
  • High rate of undiagnosed MH problems (stigma, lack of knowledge, etc)
  • Changing the routines of ineffective practices (systems) that are “familiar” to systems
what we found
What We Found
  • Schools were over identifying students of color and poverty
    • Up to 80% of SLD students are there because they haven’t learned to read
  • Students in Special Education:
    • Have less exposure to regular ed. curricula and have fewer regular ed. friends
    • Academic achievement is no better than like, non-identified peers
    • Few ever close the achievement gap, even fewer exit
    • Placement in Special Education is a life altering event
why are children from poverty more likely to struggle in school
Why are Children from Poverty More Likely to Struggle in School?

Low SES: 130,000 words

125,000 more instances of negative feedback

Middle SES:26,000,000 words

100,000 more instances of encouraging feedback

High SES: 45,000,000 words

56,000 more instances of encouraging feedback

what is trauma
What is Trauma?

“An exceptional experience in which powerful and dangerous events overwhelm a person’s capacity to cope.” (Fitzgerald & Groves)

Not an event, but a response to a stressful experience, where one’s ability to cope and adapt is overwhelmed and feelings of helplessness and terror are generated

acute vs complex trauma
Acute vs. Complex Trauma
  • Acute Trauma:
    • “A single traumatic event that overwhelms a child’s ability to cope.” (Fitzgerald and Groves)
  • Complex Trauma
    • The experience of multiple or chronic and prolonged, developmentally adverse traumatic events, most often of a personal nature (sexual or physical abuse, family violence, war, community violence) and early life onset.
    • These exposures often occur within the child’s care giving system (Spinazzola, et al)
a range of traumatic situations
A Range of Traumatic Situations

Automobile accidents

Life-threatening illness

Witnessing violence

Natural disasters


Physical or sexual abuse



Death or loss of a loved one


Living in a chronically chaotic environment

Military deployment

Substance abuse in caregivers

Depression or mental health disorder in CG

Intergenerational trauma

Historical trauma

childhood traumatic stress
Childhood Traumatic Stress
  • “ Childhood traumatic stress occurs when children and adolescents are exposed to traumatic events or traumatic situations, and when this exposure overwhelms their ability to cope with what they have experienced.” (National Child Traumatic Stress Network)
  • It occurs because the event(s) pose(s) a serious threat to:
    • The individual’s life or physical integrity
    • The life of a family member or close friend
    • One’s surrounding environment
traumatic stress
Traumatic Stress
  • Can trigger the fight, flight, or freeze response
  • Involves terror, helplessness, and/or horror
  • Responses include physical sensations -- rapid heart rate, trembling, sense of being in slow motion
trauma symptoms
Trauma Symptoms

Feelings of guilt

Low self-esteem


Emotional and psychological numbing

Rumination of the trauma

Physical symptoms

Identify with the primary victim


Unable to differentiate Affect of others

Self destructive behaviors

Substance abuse

Hypervigilant state


Sense of helplessness/hopeless- ness resulting in suicidal ideation

Belief in early death

trauma a fact of life
Trauma a Fact of Life

1 out of 4 children who attend school has been exposed to a traumatic event

  • Variables that buffer children from adversity
    • Optimistic temperament
    • Intellectual aptitude
    • Social competency
    • Secure attachments
    • Living in supportive families and safe communities

Research has shown that 2/3 of children who experience adverse childhood events will grow up and “beat the odds”

impact on learning
Impact on Learning

Lower GPA

Increased drop-out rates

More suspensions or expulsions (behavioral issues)

Decreased reading ability

Adversely affect memory and attention

Reduce ability to focus, concentrate, organize, and process information

Interfere with effective problem-solving

Result in overwhelming frustration towards school

Negative attitude

Spacing out

Diminished language and communication skills

impact on behavior in school
Impact on Behavior in School

Lack of capacity for emotional regulation


Focus on non-verbals of others

In a constant state of “survival mode”

Difficulty describing feelings and internal experiences

Difficulty communicating

Poor impulse control

Use of aggressive behavior (bullying)

Self soothing behaviors


Difficulty complying with rules

Replaying of trauma

impact on behavior in school1
Impact on Behavior in School









Behavior shifts (quiet to loud, outgoing to shy)

Refuse going to school

Regressive behaviors

Increased use of substances

Self abuse

Increased risk taking

looking through the trauma sensitive lens
Looking Through the Trauma-sensitive Lens….

“Not realizing that children exposed to inescapable, overwhelming stress may act out their pain, that they may misbehave, not listen to us, or seek our attention in all the wrong ways, can lead us to punish these children for their misbehavior…If only we knew what happened last night, or this morning before she got to school, we would be shielding the same child we’re now reprimanding.”On Playing A Poor Hand Well Mark Katz

WSU Area Health Education Center

consider two levels of intervention
Consider two levels of intervention:
  • Whole school / whole system
    • Developing plans and points of intervention that will support the socio-emotional functioning of all staff/students within a program
  • Child specific / multi-disciplinary
    • Developing interventions to support the functioning of a specific child as well as the adults supporting that child

Curriculum - Blaustein

universal strategies for all students
Universal Strategies: for ALL students

Build positive, trusting relationships with students and families

Create safe, nurturing environments

Provide consistent, predictable routines

Create clear behavioral expectations

Provide specific, positive feedback often

Use reinforcement systems

Teach social skills

Students Trauma and Resilience (STAR)

Provide pre-corrects (reminders) and actively supervise

Use consistent consequences that teach

universal strategies for all students1
Universal Strategies: for ALL students

Model appropriate behavior

Create behavior support teams

Consult with mental health professionals

Establish and practice emergency procedures

Trauma awareness training for all staff

  • Self-care training and support teams for staff
  • Data collection –
    • why is the behavior occurring?
    • Are these interventions working?
targeted interventions for some students
Targeted Interventions: for SOME students

Provide choices (build sense of control) and wait time

Provide warnings before changes

Intensive social skills instruction (relaxation techniques, coping, anger management, etc.)

Mentorship program

Behavior Support Team


Check-in/Check-Out program

Think about the function of the behavior - why are they doing this?

individualized interventions for a few
Individualized Interventions: for a FEW

Individualized strategies to address individual symptoms (aggression, impulsivity, short attention span, social isolation, etc.)

Trauma focused individualized counseling or therapy

Behavior support team connects student to counselor or therapist, works with family

Think about the function (why are they doing this?) – Functional Behavioral Assessment

arc 10 building blocks
ARC - 10 Building Blocks

Trauma Experience Integration

Dev’tal Tasks

Executive Functions

Self Dev’t & Identity

Affect Expression

Affect Identification


Routines and Rituals

Caregiver Affect Mgmt.


Consistent Response




Blaustein & Kinniburgh, 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein, 2005

  • Overarching goal: Creation of a safe environment and safe relationships that are able to support children in meeting developmental, emotional, and relational needs.
caregiver affect management

Caregiver Affect Mgmt.

Caregiver Affect Management
  • The Main Idea: Support the child’s caregiving system – whether parents or professionals – in understanding, managing, and coping with their own emotional responses, so that they are better able to support the children in their care.

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

the trauma cycle
The Trauma Cycle

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

put on your oxygen mask first
Put on your oxygen mask first
  • To step out of the cycle, caregivers must first regulate their own emotional experience.
    • Keeps us calm
    • Models effective coping
    • Helps us respond instead of react

Examining Our Attitudes about Challenging Behaviors

  • What behaviors push your buttons?
  • How do these behaviors make you feel?
  • How does this impact your relationship with a child and his/her family?

Thought Control

Calming Thoughts

“This child is testing to see

where the limits are.

My job is to stay calm and help

him learn better ways to behave.”

“I can handle this. I am in control.

They have just learned some powerful

ways to get control. I will

teach them more appropriate

ways to behave.”

Upsetting Thoughts

“That child is a monster.

This is getting ridiculous.

He’ll never change.”

“I’m sick of putting out fires!”


Thought Control

Upsetting Thought

“I wonder if the corner grocery

is hiring?”

“He ruins everything!

This is going to be the worst

year of my career.”

Calming Thoughts

“I feel undervalued right now –

I need to seek support from

my peers and supervisor.”

“Having her in my class is going to

be a wonderful Professional

Development experience.”

reframing activity
Reframing Activity

In pairs :

  • See Handout 1.3
  • Read the four examples listed and generate two to three other challenging behaviors and how you might reframe each one.
  • In reframing the challenging behaviors, do not come up with solutions but rather restate the behaviors to make them more manageable.
  • Be prepared to share your ideas with the large group.
how do we increase our ability to regulate
How do we increase our ability to regulate?
  • Psycho-education and depersonalization
  • Identifying difficult situations
  • Self-monitoring skills
  • Self-care and support

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

normalize and depersonalize
Normalize and Depersonalize
  • Normalize caregiver response to difficult behaviors – we feel what we feel
  • Depersonalize youth trauma response
    • Provide and seek psychoeducation about:
      • Adaptive nature of behaviors
      • Understanding function of child behavior
      • Understanding and recognizing triggers (and differentiating this response from opposition, manipulation, etc.)

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

understanding youth behaviors the human danger response
Understanding Youth Behaviors The Human Danger Response
  • The body’s alarm system
  • The normative danger response
  • The danger response and arousal
  • The overactive alarm
  • What triggers the alarm?
  • How do you know a child has been triggered?

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

identifying difficult situations
Identifying Difficult Situations
  • Consider the following with all adults
    • How are you coping? What sustains you in your work and what feelings do you find harder?
    • Are there particular vulnerable areas?
    • How do you know when you are modulated versus on edge?
    • What other types of things affect your ability to stay centered (i.e., external pressures, lack of sleep, etc.)?

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

build self monitoring skills
Build Self-Monitoring Skills
  • Build self-monitoring skills: Work with adults to notice their own typical responses to difficult situations
    • Body: What cues does the body give? Notice more routine body cues, as well as warning signs for “losing control” or hitting a danger point
    • Thoughts: What are adult’s automatic thoughts in the face of difficult situations? Do they….blame themselves? Worry about their choices? Focus on what the child is not doing? Compare the child to other kids?
    • Emotions: What does adult feel in the face of these thoughts? How strongly?
    • Behavior: What do you do in challenging situations? Withdraw? Become punitive? Freeze? Learn to recognize behavioral coping strategies.

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

self care and support
Self-Care and Support
  • Each caregiver should have a “self-care” plan, including an individual “tool-box”
  • Pay attention to both in-the-pocket techniques and more involved self-care
    • Individual Level Examples:
      • Deep breathing
      • Muscle relaxation/stretching/neck rolls
      • Distraction: shifting off of unproductive thoughts
      • Take a break – time out
      • Individual “mantra”
      • Preventative: ongoing self-care plan
    • Group Level:
      • Self-care forums (i.e., exercise group, yoga groups)
      • Fun group activities
      • Teacher-to-teacher support

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

supporting staff
Supporting Staff
  • Pay attention to affect management/behavioral response at both the individual staff and systemic levels
  • Normalize staff response to difficult behaviors; remind yourself and others that feeling emotion in response to your students is NORMAL and EXPECTED
  • Consider the following:
    • Forums for routine communication among staff
    • Incorporation of trauma concepts into student discussion
    • Routine processing of difficult situations (from perspective of staff support, as well as child)
    • Building mastery through experiential skill-building
    • Acknowledge vicarious trauma; build forums to address
    • Team building
    • Fun

Blaustein & Kinniburgh 2010; Kinniburgh & Blaustein 2005

if we don t intervene
If We Don’t Intervene

CA, AZ and IN will plan to budget building another jail cell for every child not reading on the 4th grade level when tested.

Paul Schwatz, Principal in Residence, U. S. Dept. of Education

mcps counseling grant
MCPS Counseling Grant
  • Support your school in strengthening and improving on-going practices…
  • Hire 1 Counselor and 2 Social Workers
  • Partner with University Psychology, Social Work and Counseling Departments
  • Train MCPS and agency CSCT staff in evidence based practices that tie in to ongoing MBI activities
  • Train MCPS and CSCT staff to increase parent and community involvement by implementing the Wraparound model
expected outcomes
Expected Outcomes?
  • Improved communication!
    • Familiar with one another’s approaches
    • Increasing caregiver involvement with our team
    • Project website—a place for resources and communication
    • Connect with Family Resource Center activities

Meet the behavioral and mental health needs of all students using culturally appropriate, best practices!

    • Train-the-trainer model

Decreased Office Discipline Referrals and Improved Academic Performance

    • Effective continuum of supports for struggling students
    • Effective Classroom Management and Routines
    • Support for all students
more about social emotional learning curriculum at tier 1 for all students
More about Social-Emotional Learning curriculum at Tier 1…for all students..
  • Prevention that targets all students in the school:
      • A school-wide program that fosters safe and caring learning environments, engage students, are culturally aware and develop a connection between school, home, and community

Tier 1 strategies should reflect the needs of OUR student population

      • Franklin has a higher need population Tier 1 may need Tier 2 strategies
      • Tier 1 strategies can decrease the proportion of students needing Tiers 2 and 3 strategies
classroom is where it is at
Classroom is Where It Is At!!!!
  • For every Office Discipline Referral:
    • a student misses approximately 20 minutes
    • Takes up 30 minutes of administrator time
    • Takes up 10 minutes

Last year Franklin reported 400 ODRS…That is 13days of student instructional time!!!

  • To change outcomes for our students we need to adapt our classrooms to meet their needs
effective classroom practices
Effective Classroom Practices

Expectations and rules

Procedures and routines

Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior

Positive to Negative Ratio 5:1

Active supervision

Multiple opportunities to respond

Activity sequence and offering choice

Academic success and task difficulty

why focus on expectations
Why Focus on Expectations?

Just like academics students enter y our classroom with a wide-range of skill be able meet expectations students must know and understand them

Some students need additional repetition to learn pro-social skills

Allows teacher quick and easy way to teach, reinforce and re-teach behaviors

guidelines for writing classroom expectations
Guidelines for Writing Classroom Expectations

Consistent with school-wide expectations/rules



Positively Stated


Always applicable-something the teach will consistently enforce

other considerations
Other Considerations…

Students should play a role in formulating rules

Rules must be prominent and easily seen

Rules must be taught, modeled and reinforced consistently

Rule should be easily monitored

classroom example
Classroom Example
  • Expectation is: Students will be SAFE
    • Rules are
      • Keep hands and feet to self
      • Use materials correctly
take time to reflect
Take Time to Reflect…
  • How did teaching MBI expectations for your classroom go this year?
    • What materials, activities did you use to teach the expectations?
    • How did you motivate/support students?
  • What went especially well?
  • What challenges did you experience?
partner share
Partner Share

Write your Classroom Rules and Expectations on the worksheet provided

Find a partner from another grade and swap rules

Check your partner’s rules against the OMPUA Guidelines

Discuss the ratings with your partner

Make edits to your own classroom rules if needed

effective classroom practices1
Effective Classroom Practices

Expectations and rules

Procedures and routines

Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior

Positive to Negative Ratio 5:1

Active supervision

Multiple opportunities to respond

Activity sequence and offering choice

Academic success and task difficulty

why focus on classroom procedures and routines
Why Focus on Classroom Procedures and Routines

The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline, it is the lack of procedures and routines

As students become more familiar with classroom routines and procedures, additional instructional formats and more challenging work can be incorporated

why procedures and routines
Why Procedures and Routines?

When clear procedures are taught and consistently enforced are the most critical tool in creating a functional productive learning environment

Form routines that help students be successful

Create patterns for accomplishing classroom tasks (predictable environment)

what are procedures and routines
What are Procedures and Routines?

Explain accepted process for carrying out a specific activity (sharpening pencil, responding in class)

Are succinct, positively stated in age appropriate terms

Keep “Who, what, where, why and how in mind”

sample schedule for teaching classroom procedures
Sample Schedule for Teaching Classroom Procedures
  • First grading period
    • Taught in all areas including classroom during first week of school
    • After first week, review 2-3 times a week
  • Second grading period
    • Review once a week
  • Remainder of Year
    • Review periodically as needed
take time to reflect1
Take Time to Reflect

Using the Self Assessment Guide, what procedures are needed specific to your classroom

grade level reflection
Grade level Reflection

Choose a recorder to write down a summary of your team thoughts

Discuss with your self assessment with your team

Use the guiding questions handout to discuss your self assessment

Use the guiding questions to decide what information you would like to learn from other teachers

Time to ShareGoal: To reflect and share your implementation successes, learn of other teachers’ efforts and consider ways to improve.

Reporter stays at table

Remaining team members will visit as many reporters as possible

Reporters share their implementation activities with visitors who may ask questions

Visitors can use guiding questions worksheet as a guide

At the signal return to grade level team and report out.

it does take a village
It DOES take a Village!

We cannot effectively serve students by providing interventions that are not directly connected to child’s environment

It is ineffective to work along side each other rather than with each other

We must use data to drive interventions and respond to a child’s need

We owe it to the student and family to employ practices that have demonstrated effectiveness