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Secret Mission 29B35Y: Penn State Plastics

Secret Mission 29B35Y: Penn State Plastics. Surveying the Troops. A Message from High Commander Paul E. Mer. MISSION: Your mission, should you choose to accept, is to survey the ranks of the plastics troops, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, and send them into battle accordingly.

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Secret Mission 29B35Y: Penn State Plastics

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  1. Secret Mission 29B35Y:Penn State Plastics Surveying the Troops

  2. A Message from High Commander Paul E. Mer • MISSION: Your mission, should you choose to accept, is to survey the ranks of the plastics troops, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, and send them into battle accordingly.

  3. One General has been assigned to each troop to assist you on your mission

  4. General Commodity Thermoplastics • Alias: Volume Thermoplastics • Troops Include: • High Density Polyethylene • Low Density Polyethylene • Linear Low Density Polyethylene • Polypropylene • Polystyrene • PVC Resin

  5. General High-Temperature Thermoplastics • Troops Include: • Fluoropolymer • Liquid Crystal Polymers • Polyamide/Imide • Polyarylate • Polyetherketone • Polyetherimide • Polyphenylene Sulfide • Polysulfone

  6. General Engineering Thermoplastics • Troops Include: • Acrylic • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene • Acetal • Cellulosics • Nylon • Polycarbonate • Polyester • Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene • Polyphenylene Oxide /PPE • Polyurethane • Styrene Acrylonitrile • Styrene Maleic Anhydride • Thermoplastic Elastomer

  7. General Therm O. Set • Troops Include: • Alkyd • Diallyl Phthalate • Epoxy • Melamine Molding Compound • Phenolic, G-P • Polyester, Unsaturated • Polyurethane, Isocyanates • Urea Molding Compound • Vinyl Ester

  8. General Recycled Plastic • Troops Include: • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene • Polycarbonate • Polyethylene • Polyethylene Terephalate Bottles • Polypropylene • Polystyrene • Polyvinyl chloride

  9. General Commodity Thermoplastics Will Report First • All members use the addition polymerization method • The differences in the members is in the functional groups attached to the carbons Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  10. The Polyethylene Family • Alias: PE • The simplest of all polymers • Two (2) carbons • Four (4) hydrogens • Basic polymer repeating unit Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  11. The Polyethylene Family Properties • Relatively insensitive to most solvents • Good or bad for the following? Why? • Chemical Reaction vessels • Painting PE items • Joining or bonding PE • High electrical resistance • Low cost • Ease of manufacturing Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  12. Low Density Polyethylene • First polyethylene made • Density of 0.910-0.925 g/cm³ • Properties • Soft • Waxy • Flexible • Low-melting • High stress-crack resistance • Used for the lids for margarine containers, for trash bags, & squeeze bottles. Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  13. LDPE • Polymer chains have many branches, of varying lengths, off of the main polymer backbone • Resembles tangled ball of yarn? Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  14. High Density Polyethylene • 1950’s German chemists discovered catalyst to prevent most of the branching • Same chemical composition as LDPE • Density of 0.935-0.960 g/cm³ • Properties • Stronger • More rigid • More dense • Higher melting • More abrasion resistant • Used to make milk jugs, bleach containers, automobile gas tanks, and shipping drums Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  15. HDPE • Easier for long strands of the molecule to form ordered, or crystalline, regions than with LDPE Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  16. Linear Low Density Polyethylene • A copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene • Child of LDPE and HDPE • Low density like LDPE • Linear structure like HDPE • Properties • Generally between LDPE and HDPE • Plastic film is the product most produced using LLDPE Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  17. LLDPE • The branched chains from the 1-hexene attached to the polyethylene chain to provide branches of defined length • Density of 0.918-0.940 g/cm³ • Usually longer side chains Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  18. Polyethylene summary Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  19. Polypropylene • Serves as both a plastic and a fiber • Dishwasher safe food containers (high heat) • Indoor/Outdoor carpeting (no water absorption) Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  20. Polystyrene • An inexpensive, hard, strong plastic • Model cars, Styrofoam™, and clear plastic cups Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  21. Polyvinyl Chloride Resin • Alias: PVC • Used in pipes, linoleum, “vinyl” siding • PVC was created by Eugen Baumann in 1872, but they had no use for it. • Resists fire and water Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  22. General High-Temperature Thermoplastics Will Report • These soldiers generally have: • High strength and stiffness • Excellent performance in high temperatures Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  23. Fluoropolymer • Contains a fluororesin and a reinforcement • Unique physical and chemical properties • Do not bond readily with other materials (nonstick) • Lubricity • Teflon (PTFE) Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  24. Liquid Crystal Polymers • Similar in structure to aramid fibers, but more processable. • Can be used at temperatures above 260°C. Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  25. Polyamide/Imide • Alias: PAI • A family of engineering thermoplastic polymers based on the combination of trimellitic anhydride with aromatic diamines • Used for laminating, prepregs and molding. Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  26. Polyetherketone • Alias: PEK (your professor’s initials!) • A crystalline, aromatic polyketone used as a high-temperature, engineering thermoplastic. • PEK can be processed on conventional injection molding and extrusion equipment. Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  27. Polyphenylene Sulfide • High-performance plastic • Very strong & resists very high temperatures • Melts at 300°C • Expensive • Used in electrical components of microwaves, cars, and hairdryers Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  28. Polysulfone • A family of sulfur-containing high performance thermoplastics • high strength • highest service temperature of all melt-processable thermoplastics • good electrical characteristics • self-extinguishing properties and resistance to greases, many solvents and chemicals. Troop High-Temperature Thermoplastics

  29. General Engineering Thermoplastics Will Report • Originally identified by their ability to replace metallic parts in many applications • Generally have: • High strength and stiffness • Retention of mechanical properties over wide range of temperature • Withstands environmental factors well Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  30. Acetal • A colorless, flammable, volatile liquid used as a solvent. • Good natural lubricity • Gears • Friction Bearing Parts Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  31. Acrylic • PAN • Soft and easy to color • PMMA • Shows almost no effect from UV degradation after years of exposure • High transparency Troop Commodity Thermoplastics

  32. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene • Alias: ABS • Son of Polystyrene but has two rubber modifiers added • Performance is much tougher • Good solvent resistance, gloss, weatherability, and processibility • Also a member of engineering thermoplastics Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  33. Nylon • Nylons are one of the most common polymers used as a fiber • the very first nylon product was a toothbrush with nylon bristles • Stockings were a huge hit but nylon was soon needed for WWII (parachutes and ropes) Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  34. Polycarbonate • A noncrystalline, clear plastic • Very strong, Impact toughness • Very High Melting Point • Creep Resistance over wide temperature range • Shatterproof/bulletproof windows • lightweight eyeglass lenses Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  35. POLYPHENYLENE OXIDE • Alias: PPO • High Performance Polymer • Biggest Strength: resistance to high temperatures • Problem: Must process at very high temperatures Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  36. Polyurethane • Polyurethanes are the most well known polymers used to make foams • If Behrend would buy you seat with cushions, they would be made of polyurethane! • Polyurethanes are the single most versatile family of polymers. Polyurethanes can be: • Elastomers • Paints • Fibers • Adhesives • Spandex Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  37. STYRENE ACRYLONITRILE • Alias: SAN • When used with glass fiber reinforcements, it results in composites with good long term strength, solvent resistance and appearance. • SAN can be injection molded. Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  38. Thermoplastic Elastomers • Alias: TPE • Rubber-like Material • High elongation • Crosslinking! Troop Engineering Thermoplastics

  39. General Therm O. SetWill Report • Thermoset plastic parts are maade from polymeric resins that are capable of forming chemical crosslinks • Crosslinking binds the polymer molecules in a three-dimensional network resulting in a part that cannot be melted Troop Thermoset

  40. Alkyd • The term alkyd was coined from the AL in polyhydric ALcohols and the CID (modified to KYD) in polybasic aCIDs. • the term alkyd usually refers to polyesters modified with oils or fatty acids. Troop Thermoset

  41. Diallyl Phthalate • Alias: DAP • polymerizes easily • a clear solid • used in thermosetting molding powders, casting resins and laminates • Good in high humidity and temperature conditions. • Glass fiber can be reinforced by DAP Troop Thermoset

  42. Epoxy • Three membered ring epoxy group • Usually the ends of a polymer • Reaction when mixing with hardener • Generally more expensive than unsaturated polyesters • Low shrinkage during molding • Toughness depends on length of chain • Long are generally tougher Troop Thermoset

  43. Melamine Molding Compound • Hardest surface of any commercial plastic material • Grease and water resistance • Common brand: Formica® Troop Thermoset

  44. Phenolic, G-P • can be used as composite materials including foams, laminating resins, and molding powders (compounded with reinforcements or fillers and curing agents). • Glass fiber reinforced phenolics can be processed by compression molding continuous laminating. Troop Thermoset

  45. Polyester, Unsaturated • most widely used in reinforced plastics • The simplest, most versatile, economical and widely used family of resins Polyethylene Terepthalate Packaging Resins • Saturated Polyester; PET Packaging Resins • Polyesters can be both plastics and fibers • Shatterproof plastic bottles & disco clothes Troop Thermoset

  46. Urea Molding Compound • Mid-range price • Good grease resistance, hardness • Easily colored • Used for molded bottle caps Troop Thermoset

  47. Vinyl Ester • designed for automotive uses • heat resistance and toughness • chemically similar to both unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins • developed as a compromise between the two • simplicity and low cost of polyesters • thermal and mechanical properties of epoxies Troop Thermoset

  48. General Recycled Plastic Will Give the Final Report • Recycling is the reprocessing of a material that has been used and discarded by a consumer and that otherwise would be destined for disposal as solid waste • A long and costly process to reprocess into useful products • Amount of materials being recycled continues to increase Troop Recycled Plastic

  49. In Summary… Those are your resources. Use them wisely.

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