Aircrew Tasks • O-2106 PLAN AND COMMAND A CAP FLIGHT (P) • P-2001 DISCUSS MISSION PILOT DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES (P) • P-2005 DISCUSS MISSION PILOT RESPONSIBILITIES DURING A MISSION (P)
Objectives • State MP duties & responsibilities. • Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. • Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights. • Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. • Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.
Objectives • Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. • Discuss proficiency. • Discuss security and airspace restrictions. Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. • Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.
Objectives • Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, loading, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, and pre-start. • Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. • State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure. • Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area. • Discuss approach, descent and landing.
Objectives • State MP duties & responsibilities. • Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities. • Concerning transportation flights: • State where to find out if someone is authorized to fly in CAP aircraft • State the pilot requirements needed to transport the typical non-CAP person in CAP aircraft • Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night. • Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC.
Objectives • Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile. • Discuss proficiency. • Discuss security and airspace restrictions. • Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals. • Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box.
Objectives • Discuss the importance of the Aircraft Flight Log and the Discrepancy Log. List the entries you should be able to locate in the aircraft log. • Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi. • Discuss climb and departure, state crosswind limitations and describe how to determine crosswind. • Discuss approach, descent and landing, and your after-landing actions.
Objectives • Discuss those items you can control to affect POD. • State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission. • Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard. • Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches. • Discuss "go/no go" decision-making.
MP Duties & Responsibilities • Primary Responsibility: Be the Pilot-in-Command. That means fly the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all FAA and CAP rules and regulations. • Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner. • In addition to these duties, the pilot is responsible for the non-scanning duties if no qualified observer is on board (navigation, radio communication).
MP Duties & Responsibilities • Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight • Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties • Obtain a proper flight release • Utilize CRM techniques and procedures
MP Duties & Responsibilities • Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing • Monitor the observer and scanner; ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported • Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly
MP Duties & Responsibilities • Sterile cockpit rules; all unnecessary talk is suspended and collision avoidance becomes the priority of each crewmember. • Sterile cockpit rules focus each crewmember on the duties at hand, namely concentrating on looking outside the aircraft for obstacles and other aircraft. • The rules will always be used during the taxi, takeoff, departure, approach, and landing phases of flight; but the pilot or any crew member may declare these rules in effect whenever they are needed to minimize distractions.
Mission Pilot Requirements • Trainee • Qualified General Emergency Services (GES) • Qualified as Mission Scanner • Current and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 175 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country. • At least 18 years of age (minimum; should be mature) • 101T-MP familiarization and preparatory training • NIMS / IS courses. • Commanders authorization
Mission Pilot Requirements • Qualification • All SQTR requirements • Complete Basic Communications User Training /Task L-001 • Completion of CAPF 91 Check Ride • Current and qualified CAP pilot IAW CAPR 60-1, with at least 200 hours PIC including 50 hours cross-country. • Exercise participation (two separate missions) • Unit certification and recommendation
Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports • Small, non-towered, unlighted airports • Runways • Taxiways • Obstacles • Services • Local NOTAMS
Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports • Larger, busy airports • Airspace and obstacles • Taxiways • Local NOTAMS • A/FD • Download airport diagrams • Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base • Taxi plan • Marshallers • If it looks too close or dangerous – STOP!
SQUAWKS • Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft • Were is it?? • Electronic?? • Not Located in the Aircraft ….?? • Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: • Lights and bulbs • Radios and navaids • Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean
Fuel Management • Maintain a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal POH/AFM cruise fuel consumption). • If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met. • Have a plan, alternates that have fuel available. • Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels
Fuel Management (con't) • Note your assumptions and brief crew: • Power setting • Wind direction and speed • Leg and total flight distance • Compare assumptions against actual conditions • Modify plan and refuel, if necessary • Check fuel status at least hourly • When in doubt – land and refuel!
Unfamiliar aircraft equipment • Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! • Even simple differences can matter: • If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it! • Sit in the aircraft and get up to speed • Get another pilot to tutor you • What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. • Don’t try to bluff
Unfamiliar terrain and weather • Plan for terrain and weather: • Enroute • Area you’ll be operating in • Clothing, equipment and survival gear
Trainees & Inexperienced Crew • Trainees: • Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilities • When not to interrupt (sterile cockpit) • Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): • Extra time on briefing • May have to assume some duties • Check 101 cards • Flight line marshallers may be on their first mission • Be alert and have your crew stay alert
Low and Slow • Often flying at 1000 feet AGL • Normally 90 knots • May be less than 90 knots (no less than Vx) • Include in your proficiency flying • Strictly enforce sterile cockpit rules • May lose radar and communications coverage • Climb to report “ops normal” • Maintain situational awareness • “If the engine quits now, where do I land”
Low and Slow (Con’t) • Maintain a minimum of 1000 feet AGL, water, or any obstruction within a 1000' radius during daylight hours, and a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff and landing or under ATC control). • Pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target (but never below 500 AGL); once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 800' AGL or higher. • Maintain airspeed above Vx
TRANSPORTATION FLIGHTS • Always consult CAPR 60-1, Chapter 2 (Passenger Requirements) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft and the conditions under which they are authorized to fly • CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 b. • All non-CAP members other than Military/Federal employees must execute a CAPF 9, Release, and leave the form in a secure location on the ground known to the flight release officer (FRO) or mission IC/CMD.
FAR Exemptions • CAPR60-1 Section 2-3 f. • CAP has two exemptions granted by the FAA for flying non-CAP passengers. • An exemption to 14 CFR 61.113 allows our pilots to obtain reimbursement as a private pilot and an exemption to 14 CFR 91.501 provides a tool for CAP to comply with specific FAA requirements regarding transportation flights. • The exemptions are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website and should be consulted prior to flying non-CAP passengers to ensure any special requirements and restrictions are adhered to.
NIGHT FLIGHT • Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches • CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (except for takeoff/landing or when under ATC control). • Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboard • Extra attention to the pre-flight and other preparations • Weather reports and advisories • Dew point spread (fog predictor) • Greatest threat is flying into weather you can’t see
NIGHT FLIGHT • Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions: • Are you really night proficient, or did you last fly 89 nights ago? • How long has it been since you’ve done a night cross-country? • How long has it been since you’ve done a night ELT search? • How long has it been since you’ve done night approaches? • When was the last time you practiced a night landing without a landing light? • How familiar are you with terrain and obstacles along the route? • Did you include all your flashlights in the weight & balance? • Include night flying (and DF) in your proficiency regimen!
ILLUSIONS OF THE NIGHT • Some lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errors • Illusions are the most common • Entering a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion-sensing system of the inner ear (“The Leans”) • Coriolis • Graveyard spin or spiral • Inversion • False horizon • Autokinesis
ILLUSIONS OF THE NIGHT • Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runway • Prevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings: • Runway width • Runway and terrain slopes • Featureless terrain • Atmospheric • Ground lighting
INSTRUMENT (IFR) FLIGHT • CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMC • Most likely is a transport flight (not to minimums) • Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstances • Can DF in IMC, but dangerous • Per CAPR 60-1, IFR flights will not depart unless weather is at or above the landing minimums at the departure airport.
INSTRUMENT (IFR) FLIGHT • Other requirements and recommendations: • PIC has, Instrument Proficiency, signed off on CAPF 91 and validated in eServices • PIC meets FAA instrument proficiency requirements • PIC is proficient in the type of CAP aircraft she’ll be flying • For any flight other than a simple transport flight, its highly recommended that another instrument-proficient pilot fly in the right seat • Never fly a search in IMC alone, Never Fly Any Search Alone! • Consider not flying an IMC search if ground teams are available
VIDEO IMAGING • An increasing important CAP mission • Real-time and near real-time images are invaluable to emergency response personnel • Primarily: • Digital still photos (some 35mm) • Video (analog and digital) with or without audio comments • Slow Scan or Satellite Phone video
VIDEO IMAGING • Essentials for a successful video imaging sortie: • Ensure everyone knows what the target is and what types of images are needed • Ensure you know how to find the target, and brief the route and video flight patterns to be used • Ensure frequencies are understood and agreed upon • Define the duties of the crewmembers and how you will transition “mission command”; • Note: the photographer will actually be in charge during the shoot • Ensure video equipment is working and that you have plenty of fresh batteries and film (media) • Clean the windows, even if you plan to open them for the shoot
TYPICAL VIDEO IMAGING PROFILE 1000’ AGL ½ NM
PROFICIENCY • CAPR 60-1 • Self conducted proficiency flight guidelines are available for use by all CAP pilots (and aircrews) to maintain currency and improve pilot confidence. These recommended guidelines are located on the NHQ CAP/DOV website. • Practice search patterns with and without GPS • Practice at night • In-flight emergencies and maneuvers will be conducted in daylight VMC …
PROFICIENCY • With the GPS, practice: • Maintaining a constant track over ground • Select/display destinations • Determine heading, time and distance to a waypoint • Save lat/long coordinates as a User Waypoint • Save your present position as a waypoint, call it up & rename • Enter and use flight plans • Exercise the nearest airport and VOR features • Practice navigating with ‘present position’ (lat/long) displayed
PROFICIENCY • Pilots, remember to take a crew with you! Good for everyone and it’s more fun! • CAPR 60-1 Profiles • Practice search patterns, with and without GPS • Practice at night • Get current & proficient at IFR flight
SECURITY CONCERNS & AIRSPACE RESTRICTIONS • Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our world • CAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security