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CAUSES OF WWI • IMPERIALISM -Germany was jealous of France and Britain b/c they colonized the best land. Germany could only take land from them. • MILITARISM -building up a nation’s armed forces, giving them more control over govn’t • NATIONALISM- A. Acting in a countries own interest B. Ethnic diversity, struggling for power • ALLIANCES- a system to protect and build each nation’s security. Would come to each other’s aid if attacked.
THE CONFLICT EXPANDS • Between Austria-Hungary (annexed Bosnia) AND Serbia (ethnic ties to Bosnia) • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. • Russia was Serbia’s protectorate, began mobilizing for war. • Germany was Austria-Hungary’s ally demanded Russia stop mobilizing. • Russia refused and France, Russia’s ally began to get ready.
Germany declared war on Russia PLAN was to knock off France first and then Russia. When Germany went through Belgium, Britain entered the war. CENTRAL POWERS-Germany & Austria-Hungary ALLIED POWERS-Russia, France, Serbia, Great Britain.
Stalemate • Neither side is able to gain the advantage. • 30 miles from Paris • No man’s land. • By 1914-Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria joined the Central powers. • By 1914-Italy and Romania joined the Allies.
Modern warfare • artillery, machine guns, grenades, poisonous gases. • 450 rounds per minute. • Battle of Somme-20,000 British dead in one day • Turned to anything to win. Poisoned drinking water, planted bombs below trenches.
AMERICAN RESPONSE • More than 1/3 of the population were immigrants. Germans and Irish favored Central Powers • Most American’s favored the Allies. • Propaganda swayed the public, turned Americans against Germans.
American neutrality • British Naval blockades and German submarines threatened trade. • President Wilson declared US neutral. • Tried to act as peacemaker.
Preparedness • Wanted US to get ready to aid Great Britain if need be. • By 1915, National security League, set up camps to train men to fight • Peace protests began.